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1684. ἀπό (Lesb. etc. ἀπύ) from, off, away from; originally of separation and departure. Cp. Lat. ab, Eng. off, of.

1. ἀπό with the Genitive only

a. Local: ““καταπηδήσα_ς ἀπὸ τοῦ ἵππουleaping down from his horseX. A. 1.8.28, ἐθήρευεν ἀπὸ ἵππου he used to hunt (from a horse) on horseback 1. 2. 7, ““ἀπὸ θαλάσσηςat a distance from the seaT. 1.7. Figuratively: ““ἀπὸ θεῶν ἀρχόμενοιbeginning with the godsX. A. 6.3.18.

b. Temporal: ἀφ᾽ ἑσπέρα_ς after evening began (after sundown) X. A. 6.3.23, ἀπὸ τοῦ αὐτοῦ σημείου on the same signal 2. 5. 32, ἀπὸ τῶν σί_των after meals X. R. L. 5.8, ἀφ᾽ οὗ since.

c. Other relations: (1) Origin, Source: in prose of more remote ancestry: τοὺς μὲν ἀπὸ θεῶν, τοὺς δ᾽ ἐξ αὐτῶν τῶν θεῶν γεγονότας some descended (remotely) from gods, others begotten (directly) of the gods themselves I. 12.81. (This distinction is not always observed.) Various other relations may be explained as source.

(2) Author: as agent with passives and intransitives, when an action is done indirectly, through the influence of the agent (ὑπό of the direct action of the agent himself). Not common, except in Thuc. (chiefly with πρἀ_ττεσθαι, λέγεσθαι, and verbs of like meaning): ““ἐπρά_χθη ἀπ᾽ αὐτῶν οὐδὲν ἔργονnothing was done under their ruleT. 1.17. The startingpoint of an action is often emphasized rather than the agent: ““ἀπὸ πολλῶν καὶ πρὸς πολλοὺς λόγοι γιγνόμενοιspeeches made by many and to manyT. 8.93.

(3) Cause (remote): ““ἀπὸ τούτου τοῦ τολμήματος ἐπῃνέθηhe was praised in consequence of this bold deedT. 2.25, ““ταῦτα οὐκ ἀπὸ τύχης ἐγίγνετο, ἀλλ᾽ ἀπὸ παρασκευῆς τῆς ἐμῆςthis happened not from chance but by reason of the preparations I madeL. 21.10.

(4) Means, Instrument: ““στράτευμα συνέλεξεν ἀπὸ χρημάτωνhe raised an army by means of moneyX. A. 1.1.9; rarely of persons: ““ἀπ᾽ αὐτῶν βλάψαιto do injury by means of themT. 7.29.

(5) Manner: ““ἀπὸ τοῦ προφανοῦςopenlyT. 1.66.

(6) Conformity: ““ἀπὸ τοῦ ἴσουon a basis of equalityT. 3.10, ἀπὸ ξυμμαχία_ς αὐτόνομοι independent by virtue of (according to) an alliance 7. 57.

N.—ἀπό with gen. is sometimes preferred to the simple gen., often for emphasis: ““οἱ λόγοι ἀφ᾽ ὑ_μῶνthe words that proceed from youT. 6.40, ὀλίγοι ἀπὸ πολλῶν a few of the many 1. 110 (cp. 1317 a). Thuc. has many free uses of ἀπό.

2. ἀπό in Composition

From, away, off (ἀπιέναι go away, ἀποτειχίζειν wall off), in return, back (ἀποδιδόναι give back what is due, ἀπαιτεῖν demand what is one's right). Separation involves completion (hence ἀπανα_λίσκειν utterly consume, ἀποθύ_ειν pay off a vow), or privation and negation (ἀπαγορεύειν forbid, ἀποτυγχάνειν miss). Often almost equivalent to an intensive (ἀποφάναι speak out, ἀποδεικνύναι point out, ἀποτολμᾶν dare without reserve).

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  • Cross-references to this page (1):
    • Raphael Kühner, Bernhard Gerth, Ausführliche Grammatik der griechischen Sprache, KG 1.3.2
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