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834. Changes in stems.—Various changes occur when a suffix is added to a stem.

a. The final vowel of a stem is contracted with the initial vowel of a suffix: ὀφί_διον small snake (ὄφι- ¨ ιδιον from ὄφι-ς). So when a consonant is dropped at the end of a stem: αἰδο-ῖο-ς venerable (αἰδώς reverence, stem αἰδοσ-), βασιλε-ία_ kingdom (βασιλεύ-ς king, stem βασιλεϝ- for βασιλεῦ-. 43), ἀστε-ῖο-ς refined (ἄστυ city, stem ἀστεϝ- for ἀστεῦ-, 43). Cp. 858. 2.

b. A long final vowel of a stem may be shortened before the initial vowel of a suffix: δίκα^-ιο-ς just, δίκη right, stem δικα_-. (Properly δίκαι is an old case form, 833 c, to which -ο-ς is added.)

c. A final vowel or diphthong may be dropped before the initial vowel of a suffix: σοφ-ία_ wisdom (σοφό-ς wise), τί_μ-ιο-ς honoured, costly (τι_μή honour, stem τι_μα_-), βασιλ-ικό-ς royal (βασιλεύ-ς king), πολι_τ-ικό-ς civic (πολί_της citizen, stem πολι_τα_-).

d. The final letter or letters of a consonant stem may be dropped: σωφρο-σύνη temperance, moderation (σώφρων temperate, stem σωφρον-), μελ-ύδριον little song (μέλ-ος song, μελεσ-), ἀληθ-ινό-ς genuine (ἀληθής -ές true). So apparently in the case of a vowel stem in δεσπό-συνος belonging to the master (δεσπότης).

e. The final consonant of a stem undergoes regular euphonic change before the initial consonant of a suffix: βλέμ-μα glance (βλέπ-ω look), δικασ-τής a judge (δικαδ-της, from δικάζω judge, stem δικαδ-), πίσ-τι-ς faith ( = πιθ-τι-ς, from πείθ-ω persuade, stem πιθ-), λέξις style ( = λεγ-σι-ς, from λέγ-ω speak).

f. Stems in ο have an alternative in ε (cp. ἵππο-ς, voc. ἵππε; 229 b). This ε often appears in denominatives: οἰκέ-ω dwell, οἰκέ-της house-servant, οἰκε-ῖο-ς domestic (οἶκο-ς house).

g. Derivatives of α_ stems may apparently show ω in place of α_; as στρατιώ-της soldier (στρατιά_ army), Ἰ_ταλιώ-της an Italiote, Greek inhabitant of Italy (Ἰ_ταλία_ Italy). See 843 a, N. Stems in α_ have η in τι_μή-εις honoured (τι_μή, stem τι_μα_-).

h. Vowel stems, especially those derived from verbs, often lengthen a final short vowel before a suffix beginning with a consonant: ποίη-μα poem, ποίη-σι-ς poetry, ποιη-τή-ς poet, ποιη-τι-κό-ς creative, poetical (ποιέ-ω make); δεσμώ-τη-ς prisoner (δεσμό-ς, δεσμά fetters). Verbs with stems in α, ε, ο usually show in derivatives the stem vowel as found in the tenses other than the present; as δηλό-ω manifest, fut. δηλώ-σω, δήλω-σι-ς manifestation; ἀρόω plough, fut. ἀρό-σω, ἄρο-σι-ς arable land, ἀρο-τήρ ploughman; εὑρ-ίσκ-ω find out, fut. εὑρ-ή-σω, εὕρ-η-μα discovery, but εὕρ-ε-σις discovery, εὑρ-ε-τής discoverer.

i. Vowel stems sometimes insert a vowel before a suffix beginning with a consonant: πολι-ή-τη-ς, Ionic for πολί_-τη-ς citizen, πτολί-ε-θρο-ν (poetic) city.

j. Consonant stems, and vowel stems not ending in ο, often show ο before a suffix in denominatives; a stem in -ον is thus replaced by one in -ο: σωφροσύνη temperance (σώφρων temperate, σωφρον-); αἱματ-ό-εις bloody (αἷμα, -ατος blood) and σκι-ό-εις shadowy (σκιά_ shadow) by analogy to δολό-εις wily, 858. 3. Cp. 873-875.

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