ἀρκτέον = δεῖ ἄρχειν, one must rule: cp. Soph. Ant. 677 “ἀμυντέ᾽ ἐστὶ τοῖς κοσμουμένοις.” Isoc. 14.10 “οὐ τῶν ἄλλων αὐτοῖς ἀρκτέον” （they ought not to rule over others） ἀλλὰ πολὺ μᾶλλον Ὀρχομενίοις φόρον οἰστέον. In Plat. Tim. 48b “ἀρκτέον” = δεῖ ἄρχεσθαι, one must begin; in Soph. Aj. 853 “ἀρκτέον τὸ πρᾶγμα” = must be begun. Some understand— “one must be ruled,” and οὔτοι κακῶς γ᾽ ἄρχοντος,“ No, not by one who rules ill”: but (a) though ἀρκτέα πόλις might mean, “the city is to be ruled,” an absolute passive use of ἀρκτέον is certainly not warranted by such an isolated example as οὐ καταπληκτέον ἐστίν （“we must not be unnerved”） in Din. 1.108: (b) ἄρχομαί τινος, “I am ruled by one” （instead of ἐκ or ὑπό）, could only plead the analogy of ἀκούω τινός, and lacks evidence.
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