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The subjunctive is the mood of subordination. AG 438 See also sequence of tenses, above.

Clauses with “cum” take the subjunctive when the “cum-”clause tells something about the circumstances around the main action. AG 546

Concessive and causal “cum-”clauses also take the subjunctive. AG 549

Subordinate clauses in indirect discourse take the subjunctive, though clauses that are not actually part of the quotation take the same mood as they would in direct discourse. AG 580, 585

Indirect questions take the subjunctive. AG 574

Conditional sentences take the subjunctive when the protasis is false; these are "contrary to fact" conditionals. "Future less vivid" conditionals, where the protasis gives a supposition or hypothesis that might or might not be true, also use the subjunctive. Sometimes general or "whenever" conditionals take the subjunctive, but these may also be treated as simple conditionals. AG 514, 516, 517, 518

  • Nostri, si ab illis initium transeundi fieret, parati in armis erant.Caesar, BG 2.9 Our troops were ready in case theirs might begin to cross. The protasis is a hypothesis and the apodosis a fact; the protasis uses the imperfect subjunctive for subsequent action in secondary sequence.
  • Si nostri oblita taceret, sana esset.Catullus 83.3-4 If Lesbia will forget about us and be quiet (which is not what she is doing), she will be OK (but instead she's going to fall in love). The protasis and apodosis are both contrary to fact; the imperfect subjunctive is used for continuing action, because the entire poem is cast in the present tense (cf. “dicit”, line 1).

Purpose clauses, sometimes called "final" clauses, take the subjunctive. AG 531

Result clauses, sometimes called "consecutive" clauses, take the subjunctive. AG 537

Relative clauses "of characteristic" also take the subjunctive; these give a general rule characterizing the antecedent. AG 534-535

Relative clauses can take the subjunctive when they are equivalent to purpose clauses; here “qui” is equivalent to “ut is”. AG 531

The subjunctive can also be used in independent clauses, though this is relatively rare. Independent clauses with the subjunctive include commands ("hortatory" or "jussive" subjunctive, AG 439-440), wishes ("optative" subjunctive, AG 441-442), or doubtful questions ("deliberative" subjunctive, AG 444).

Negative commands are also independent clauses with the subjunctive, except of course those that use “noli” with the infinitive. AG 450

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