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βάναυσον, sordid, unworthy of a freeborn man: Plato joins “βάναυσος” with “ἀνελεύθερος” (Legg. 644 A). Cp. Arist. Pol. 8. 2§ 5 “τὰς..τοιαύτας τέχνας, ὅσαι τὸ σῶμα παρασκευάζουσι χεῖρον διακεῖσθαι, βαναύσους καλοῦμεν”. Thus the notion at the root of the word was that of some mechanical (or sedentary) calling which interfered with efficiency in athletics or war. (Compare the taunts of Euryalus to the disguised Odysseus, Hom. Od. 8. 159.) Teucer might well say that his art was not “βάναυσος”: Heracles and Philoctetes were among its masters.

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