κώδωνος … Τυρσηνικῆς. The trumpet meant here was in form like the Roman,—straight, gradually increasing in diameter, and ending in a bell-shaped aperture (“κώδων”). ‘Tyrrhenian,’ a frequent epithet of the trumpet ( Aesch. Eum. 567, Eur. Phoen. 1377, Verg. Aen. 8. 526, etc.), perhaps means no more than that the instrument was first brought to Europe by Tyrrhenian pirates,—the “λῃστοσαλπιγκταί” of Menander (frag.incert. 399). The Tyrrheni, according to a tradition for which Herodotus is the earliest witness (1. 94), were of Lydian origin; and the bronze trumpet may have been a Lydian invention (see Dict. Ant. ‘Tuba’). Homer mentions the trumpet only in similes, as when the voice of Achilles is likened to it ( Il. 18. 219, etc.). But the Greeks must have had it as early at least as the time of the Dorian conquest, to judge from the legends heard by Pausanias at Argos (2. 21, § 3), where there was a shrine of “Ἀθηνᾶ Σάλπιγξ”.—See Appendix. As to the gender of “κώδων”, De Sens. 6 p. 446 b 22 has “τῆς κώδωνος” (bell). In Ar. Pax 1078 the words “χἡ κώδων ἀκαλανθίς” are said to mean a kind of hound. But “κώδων” (bell) is masc. with Thuc. , Strabo, Plutarch, Diodorus and Lucian.
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