ΠανΝύχιαι: the origin of the “παννυχίς” is almost certainly indicated in this word (Preller). Gemoll notes that the ignorance of Celeus as to what has happened until the morning points to a mystery. Most of the sacred ceremonies during the whole course of the Eleusinia were carried on at night. In the very earliest period the worship of Demeter Thesmophoros at Eleusis, as elsewhere, was probably confined to women (Foucart p. 78, Jevons p. 379, Ramsay p. 127); and the hymn clearly shews the important part played by the women, even in a later stage of the Eleusinian religion. For women as mainly or exclusively concerned in agriculture see Jevons p. 239-242. Even when a share in agriculture falls to the lot of the men, the place of women in festivals concerned with sowing, reaping, etc. is often predominant; for examples see Frazer G. B. i. p. 35, ii. p. 203, etc.
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