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ἄνδρες—Thuc. shows exquisite judgment in selecting the places in which to insert speeches. They are the occasions on which it is necessary for the reader to understand the exact situation of affairs and to realise what were the infiuences at work. They stand in place of explanation and abstract reasoning. The occasions selected for this purpose in this book are (a) the first invasion of Attica (this speech shows the feelings of the Spartans); (b) the close of the first campaign (the Funeral Oration is an exposition of the form and theory of the Athenian polity by the ablest citizen); (c) the close of Pericles' administration and life, the speech containing a vindication of his policy; (d) the victories of Phormio, the one event of great importance outside Athens in 429, and the most splendid example of Athenian prowess in the whole war. Dion. Hal. totally misunderstood the significance of the speeches. Far juster is Lucian's estimate (πῶς δεῖ ἱστορίαν συγγράφειν c. 44): he knew that Thuc.'s object was σαφῶς δηλῶσαι καὶ φανώτατα ἐμφανίσαι τὰ πράγματα. [οἱ] —inserted through confusion with οἱ πατέρες. Thuc. never puts in the article in such addresses. ξύμμαχοι—there are two elements in the force, but Archidamus groups them together, and carefully draws no distinctions. ἄνδρες goes with ξύμμαχοι also. καὶ οἱ π. . καὶ αὐτῶν—paratactic, the 2nd member being the more prominent. οἱ πατέρες—an opportune reference to the wars which were the glory of the Dorian race. Thuc. however avoids any commonplaces about the Persian wars such as become frequent in later writers. στρατείας ἐποιήσαντο— = ἐστράτευσαν. ἡμῶν οἱ πρεσβύτεροι εἰσίν—with the ‘partitive’ genitive 1st or 2nd person, the verb is generally in 3rd person, but the writer always passes quickly to the 1st or 2nd. Cf. III. 62 σκέψασθε ἐν οἵῳ εἴδει ἑκάτεροι ἡμῶν τοῦτο ἔπραξαν. VII. 64 ἐνθυμεῖσθε ὅτι οἱ ἐν ταῖς ναυσὶν ὑμῶν νῦν ἐσόμενοι καὶ πεζοὶ τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις εἰσὶ καὶ νῆες. So I. 87. When for the subject a relative clause is substituted, the 3rd person is rare: e.g. Andoc. I. 46 ὁπόσοι ὐμῶν παρῆσαν (= οἱ παρόντες) ἀναμιμνήσκεσθε. Lys. 12, 97, Aeschin. 3, 60. The same phenomenon may be seen in Latin poets, as Ov. Trist.III. 4, 75 et qua quisque potest aliqua mala nostra levate. μείζονα—litotes, as πλεῖστοι shows. νῦν ἐρχόμεθα—sc. ἡμεῖς, whereas οἱ πατέρες καὶ οἱ πρεσβύτεροι was subject to ἐξήλθομεν. στρατεύοντες—sc. ἐρχόμεθα, the antithesis being between πόλιν and αὐτοί, δυνατωτάτην and πλεῖστοι καὶ ἄριστοι στρατεύοντες.
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