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ἐν ὁδῷ ὄντων—cf. c. 12, 1 and 2, but referring here to the march not of the various contingents to the Isthmus, but of the whole force from the Isthmus. Several meetings of the Ecclesia were held.

Περικλῆς—O. Drefke, de orat. quae in priore parte Historiae Thuc. insunt, suggests that Thuc. probably intended to insert a speech here, but changed his mind on finding the subject unsuitable for readers. He thinks that we have here the notes Thuc. had made at the time, which assumption would explain the loose structure of the Oratio Obliqua throughout. Cf. c. 72. δέκατος αὐτὸς—the view of Gilbert, that this phrase means that Pericles was στρατηγὸς αὐτοκράτωρ, i.e. was irresponsible and had full powers to do anything he deemed necessary, is now generally accepted. Pericles held the same position in the war with Samos 440 B.C.

μὴ πολλάκις—as though ὑποτοπήσας were φοβηθείς. Cf. III. 53, 2 ὑποπτεύομεν μὴ οὐ κοινοὶ ἀποβῆτε. πολλάκιςforte, a sense which it bears only after εἰ, ἐάν, μή. μὴ δηώσῃ—should be οὐ δηώσῃ. This very rare irregularity is only possible when the second negative is far removed from the first. M. T. 306.

ἐπὶ διαβολῇ—the same thing was done by Hannibal to cast odium on Fabius, Livy, xxii. 23, 4. For the order, see c 2, 2.

τοῦτο γένηται—c. 11, 8.

προηγόρευε—above προεῖπον. The rule about compounds of λέγω and ἀγορεύω will be found in Rutherford's New Phryn. p. 326.

οἱ—the only form of the indirect reflexive singular found in Thuc. and the orators, and rare in them.

ἐπὶ κακῷ—the same phrase in V. 44, 3, 77, 6; VIII. 58, 3, 4.

γένοιτο—sc. τοῦτο, as γένηται τοῦτο above.

τοὺς ἀγροὺς καὶ οἰκίας—the article not repeated, the two nouns forming one idea between them (viz. the idea τὴν φανερὰν οὐσίαν). Cf. c. 10, 3.

ἀφίησιν—does not depend on προηγόρευε, but is used for άφιέναι φησίν (which is possibly what Thuc. wrote), just as we might say ‘he gives the land’ for ‘he undertakes to give it.’

εἶναι—like the use of εἶναι in Homer and Herod., expressing purpose, but redundant. M. T. 774.

γίγνεσθαι —this is like the use of the infinitive in the terms of a treaty or any compact. It is in origin probably identical with the so-called infinitive for imperative. But this may be oblique for μηδεμία μοι ὑποψία γιγνέσθω. In any case, Pp.'s explanation, supplying βούλεται, is without doubt wrong. The sentence is probably a note Thuc. wrote in these very words at the time.

παρῄνει δὲ—cf. V. 38, 2 παρῄνουν γενέσθαι ὅρκους. καὶ πρότερον—I. 143. τὰ ἐκ τῶν . ἐσκομίζεσθαι—cf. c. 5, 7.

ἔς τε μάχην—the ancient critics noticed that polysyndeton is common in Thuc. There are three main members here, each introduced by τε, παρασκευάζεσθαί τε ... ἔς τε ... τά τε, and the first two are complicated by an additional member, which however does not affect the main structure, viz. καὶ ... ἐσκομίζεσθαι, ἀλλὰ ἐξαρτύεσθαι. μὴ ἐπεξιέναι—Intr. p. lxix.

τὴν πόλιν ἐσελθόντας φυλάσσειν— cf IV. 70 τὴν πόλιν ἐσελθὼν βεβαιώσασθαι. When a participle and verb which have different constructions take a common object, the object regularly follows the construction required by the participle, as in I. 114, 2 ἐς Ἐλευσῖνα καὶ Θριῶζε ἐσβαλόντες ἐδῄωσαν, IV 18 δοῦναι ἐφ᾽ άφιγμένοι ὑμᾶς αἰτούμεθα, VII. 3, 4 μέρος τι πέμψας πρὸς τὸ φρούριον αἱρεῖ, ib. 53, 2 προσπεσόντες τοῖς πρώτοις τρέπουσι. But there is here no need to take τὴν πόλιν with ἐσελθόντας at all.

διὰ χειρὸς ἔχειν— the opposite of ἀνιέναι, I 76 ἀρχὴν ἀνιέναι. So Livy XXI. 35, 9in manu habere”. χεὶρ means ‘control.’ Eur. Hec. 986. Cf. the legal sense of manus. See also c. 76, 4.

λέγων ... εἶναι—a rare construction—c. 57, 1. ἀπὸ τούτων εἶναι τῶν χρ. τῆς προσόδου—i.e. τὴν ἰσχὺν τῆς προσόδου τῶν χρημάτων ἀπὸ τούτων ( = τῶν ξυμμάχων) εἶναι. Cf. III. 13, 6 ἔστι τῶν χρημάτων άπὸ τῶν ξυμμάχων πρόσοδος. This sentence must not be pruned, for τῆς προσόδου defines the nature of ἰσχύν, and τῶν χρημάτων is caught up presently by χρημάτων again: the insertion of τῶν χρημάτων is stylistic.

τὰ πολλὰ .. κρατεῖσθαι—‘most successes are won.’

γνώμῃ —‘insight,’ not put in at hap-hazard, but summing up in a word παρασκευάζεσθαι to ἐξαρτύεσθαι. It is on the policy here sketched that Pericles rested his claims to be possessed of γνώμη, or, as Thuc. says in c. 65 πρόνοια. To supply γνώμη was the statesman's part, to supply χρήματα the subjects'.

ἑξακοσίων—in I. 96 we see that under Aristides' administration the φόρος amounted to 460 talents. In the lists of the quota paid to Athene for 450 and 446 B.C., the tribute of some States is seen to be reduced, and the total was probably made up by payments from new subjects. But the tribute was in some cases subsequently raised, so that 600 talents may represent the average (ὡς τὶ τὸ πολὺ) in 431.

φόρου—for this genitive of material, cf. ἀργυρίου below. See Rutherford, Syntax, p. 35.

ἀπὸ τῶν ξυμ—the origin (ἀπὸ) from which money is obtained. Cf. Aristoph. Vesp. 670 δωροδοκοῦσιν ἀπὸ τῶν πόλεων (rightly defended by Sobolewski, de praepos. usu Aristoph.).

ἄνευ—this is the ordinary meaning of χωρὶς as a preposition in Attic, but Thuc. only uses χωρὶς as an adverb. The opposite of σὺν (τοῖς) θεοῖς (see c. 2, 1) is ἄνευ (τῶν) θεῶν. The opposite of σὺν in its other Attic sense in totals, is usually χωρίς. The opposite of μετά is ἄνευ, and more rarely χωρίς (thus Isocrates has two cases, but in both χωρίς, not ἄνευ, is used to avoid hiatus).

τῆς ἄλλης προσόδου—as rents from public lands, especially the silver mines, the tax paid by resident aliens and by owners of slaves, duties on imports exports and sales, and court fees and fines, amounting in all to at least 400 talents.

ἐν τῇ ἀκροπόλει— in the Opisthodomus of the Parthenon.

ἐγένετο—‘amounted to.’ Cf. c. 20, 4.

τὰ προπύλαια—begun 437, completed 432.

τἆλλα—the Odeum, Parthenon and the sculpture on the buildings was paid for out of this fund.

ἐς Ποτείδαιαν —from first to last the siege cost 2000 talents. It began in the autumn of 433, ended in the winter of 430. Probably Thuc. omits in that sum the expense of Hagnon's expedition (c. 58), which cost 400 talents more.

Χωρὶς—‘besides.’ Cf. c. 24, 31, 97. χρυσίου— depends on ταλάντων below.

ὅσα—sc. ἐστί. So c. 9, 4, 97 περί—‘used in.’

σκῦλα Μηδικὰ—sc. ὅσα ἐστί, but this might have been ἐν σκύλοις Μηδικοῖς. The throne of Xerxes and the sabre of Mardonius (Medus acinaces) were among them.

οὐκ ἔλασσον π. ταλάντων—cf. IV. 72 παρόντος τοῦ στρατεύματος, ὁπλιτῶν οὐκ ἔλασσον ἑξακισχιλίων. The genitive of comparison does not follow ἔλασσον here, because ταλάντων is already in the genitive absolute, sc. ὑπαρχόντων from above.

Τὰ ἐκ τῶν ἄλλων ἱερῶν—i.e. in temples other than the Parthenon. The temple treasures were of great value.

χρήματα—no doubt Pericles explained the details, whieh he must have known thoroughly after his long tenure of the Generalship, in which he had distinguished himself in Finauce. In this respect he was imitated by many popular leaders who followed him, and, as the war went on, Finance became the most pressing difficulty.

οἷς χρήσεσθαι—cf. c. 102 λέγεται ... ὅτε δὴ ἀλᾶσθαι. This attraction of short relative clauses in Oratio Obliqua into infinitive is less rare in Greek than in Latin (of course qui = et is etc. is different). Thuc. has nine instances.

τῆς θεοῦ—i.e. the statue of Athene. Both in Greek and Latin the name of the person represented is used for the statue itself, as Victoria aurea.

σταθμὸν —predicate.

χρυσίου .—with τάλαντα. ἀπέφθου—i.e. without alloy.

περιαιρετὸν εἶναι—sc. ἔφη. μὴ ἐλάσσω— often during the war money was borrowed from the ἱερὰ χρήματα. The loans were repaid with interest at a low rate, which Pericles probably proposed at this time.

Τρισχιλίους καὶ μ.—cf. c. 31, 2. 10,000 were on the spot, 3000 at Potidaea.

τῶν ἐν τοῖς φρουρίοις—the garrisons of Attica were supplied mainly from the περίπολοι, young Athenians between 18 and 20 years old. At 18 their age was entered in the ληξιαρχικὸν γραμματεῖον, list of the members of the deme capable of arms kept by the demarch. Not till 20 was a man entitled to attend the Ecclesia. The περίπολοι regularly served in Attica.

ἔπαλξιν—eollective. See c. 4, 2. Again the article dropped with a word approximating to a proper name, in prepositional phrases. The line of fortified walls of Athens and Piraeus, including the long walls, is meant. The citizens who manned these were drawn from the πρεσβύτατοι, those excused by age from serving outside Attica. Legally this age was 60, but in practice it could be, and probably was, reduced.

νεωτάτων—the περίπολοι.

Τοῦ Φαληρικοῦ—begun under Themistocles with τὸ ἔξωθεν (τεῖχος), which ran to Piraeus. Under Pericles, about 445, a third wall, τὸ διὰ μέσου was built between these two, running to Munychia.

ἦσαν—were, according to Pericles' narrative.

τὸν κύκλον τοῦ ἄστεως—the walls of Athens.

ἀφύλακτον ἦν—about 6 stadia: so that the city walls, as rebuilt after Salamis, were about 50 stadia in circumference.

τοῦ τε μακροῦ = τοῦ ἔξωθεν. τὰ μακρὰ τείχη—namely τὸ ἔξωθεν, the earlier wall, and τὸ διὰ μέσου τεῖχος, called τὰ σκέλη.

σταδίων—genitive of description, almost confined to expressions of magnitude. Cf. c. 23, 3.

Ξὺν ἱπποτοξόταις—including (ξὺν) the 200 mounted archers, state slaves who served as police, as did the 1200 Σκύθαι who are included in the 1600 τοξόται below.

τριήρεις τὰς π.—see c. 2, 2.

τριακοσίους—in III. 17 we read that 250 ships were employed on active service at the beginning of the war. (As the details there given do not correspond with those given in this book with regard to the fleet in 431, the text is probably wrong in III. 17.

Ἐς ἀπόδειξιν τοῦ περιέσεσθαι—cf. c. 56 ἐς ἐλπίδα ἦλθον τοῦ ἑλεῖν, and for the rare future infinitive with article, I. 144, 1.

τῷ πολέμῳ—the dative is temporal. Cf. c. 20 ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἐσβολῆ̣. It is however rarely that ἐν is omitted with a noun used temporally which is not properly temporal.

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  • Commentary references from this page (24):
    • Aristophanes, Wasps, 670
    • Euripides, Hecuba, 986
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.114
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.144
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.76
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.96
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.102
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.20
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.56
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.58
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.65
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.13
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.17
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.53
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.18
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.70
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.72
    • Thucydides, Histories, 5.38
    • Thucydides, Histories, 5.44
    • Thucydides, Histories, 7.3
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.58
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.12.1-2
    • Livy, The History of Rome, Book 22, 23
    • Livy, The History of Rome, Book 21, 35
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