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Καὶ—‘further.’ Here Pericles, who has not before openly alluded to Sparta, first avows the contrast.

ταῖς μελέταις ... τοῖσδε—the second dat. restricts the first.

τῶν ἐναντίων—with διαφέρομεν. κοινὴν—Intr. p. lxx. end.

ξενηλασίαις—‘alien acts,’ one of the arcana imperii by which the Ephors tried to keep ont foreign manners. Strangers were not allowed to settle in Sparta. The Athenians felt this as an insult. Cf. I. 144. Aristoph. Av. 1012 ὥσπερ ἐν Λακεδαἰμονι ξενηλατεῖται. ... ὠφεληθείη—i.e. εἰ ἴδοι μὴ κρυφθὲν ὠφεληθείη ἄν. Thuc. says that he was unable to obtain information about Spartan military matters owing to the concealment which the government practised. v. 9, 5. Cf. c. 8, 4, and τὸ κρυπτὸν τῆς πολιτεἰας v. 68, 2.

τῷ ἀφ᾽ ἡμῶν ... εὐψύχῳ some what similar is c. 87, 1 τὰ ἀπὸ τῆς τύχης. Demosth. 54, 36 ἀπ᾽ αὐτῶν ἑτοιμότης. ὄση καὶ ὅα πρὸς τὸ ποιεῖν ὁτιοῦν ὑπάρχει. A rare use outside Thuc.: not found in Aristoph., very rare in the orators.

ἐς τὰ ἔργα—contrasted with παρασκευαῖς. Contrast c. 11, 5.

ταῖς παιδείαις—‘respective methods of education.’

ἐπιπόνῳ ἀσκήσει—of the laborious training to which young Spartans were subjected, being taught to imitate the courage and gravity of men. The life they led was half military, half monastic. At Athens ἐπίπονος was only associated with γῆρας, not with νεότης. Plat. Rep. I. p. 329 D.

ἀνειμένως διαιτώμενοι—cf. I. 6, 3 πρῶτοι Ἀθηναῖοι τόν τε σίδηρον κατέθεντο καὶ ἀνειμένῃ τῇ διαίτῃ ἐς τὸ τρυφερώτερον μετέστησαν. It was conflicting ideas that drove Athens and Sparta into war. Doderlein says ‘demonstratur (in this speech) non impotentia tantum et dominandi cupidine ad bellum tam atrox tamque diutinum impulsos esse, sed etiam diversa recti honestique aestimatione et constanti sui utrosque judicii propugnatione.’

τοὺς ἰσοπαλεῖς κ—Editors are not agreed as to the meaning of these words; there are two interpretations: (1) ‘equal dangers,’ i.e. dangers as great as any the Spartans, for all their training, venture to face (so most edd.); (2) ‘struggles in which equal, but not superior, forces oppose us.’ So Kr., Cl., Tillmanns. The general sense favours (1), the Greek favours (2). According to (2), the reservation is implied ‘we do not risk a battle against superior forces, as when the enemy invade Attica.’

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