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Φιλοκαλοῦμεν—these words have been assidu- ously translated, paraphrased, and burlesqued. They not only defend Athenian ἀνδρεία, but contain sound advice to his hearers not to let their love of art degenerate into bad taste and mere display, nor their culture undermine their manliness.

εὐτελείας—‘simplicity,’ avoidance of the gorgeous ornamentation that afterwards characterised Asianism.

φιλοσοφοῦμεν—‘combine culture with manliness.’ Observe the ἰσόκωλον (equal number of syllables in two clauses), 11 syllables on each side of καί: this is a variety of παρομοίωσις (Intr. p. lii.), and the παρονομασία in φιλοκαλοῦμεν, φιλοσοφοῦμεν. ἄνευ μαλακίαςDemosth. 3, 24 and 25 has a passage probably suggested by this, in which he contrasts the magnificence of the public buildings with the simplicity of the private life in former times. Pericles refers to the Spartan idea, that learning was unsuited to men of action. The idea is not confined to Sparta.

πλούτῳ—‘we employ our wealth as means for action, not as a subject for boasting.’ Cf. c. 41, 2.

τὸ πένεσθαι—put First, because emphatic. ‘To admit poverty is no disgrace.’ Cf. c. 37, 1. There were penalties for idleness at Athens.

αἴσχιον—another γνώμη in the form of an antithesis. Cf. c. 11, 5, and 2, 3 and 4 below. The comparative implies ‘even if poverty were disgraceful (as some say).’ Plat. Apol. p. 39 A μὴ ού τοῦτ᾽ ἦ̣ χαλεπόν, θάνατον ἐκφυγεῖν, ἀλλὰ πολὺ χαλεπώτερον πονηρίαν: the first member must be negative in this idiom, in which opposition is mixed with comparison. Cf. οὐδὲν ἄλλο ... ἀλλ᾽ in Plato.

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