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Ἀρετὴν—in its restricted sense, as Aristot. Rhet. I. 9, 4,=the power of doing good; not in the general sense of the Ethics (= perfection of man and of his functions). ἐνηντιώμεθα—the perf. denotes ‘we have always been unlike,’ a regular use of the perf. In Aristoph. Av. 385 the MSS. give ἠναντιώμεθα against the metre. δρῶντες—cf. Pliny, Ep. III. 4, 6 conservandum veteris officii meritum novo videbatur. τοὺς —‘our.’ βεβαιότερος—‘a firmer friend,’ cf. Aristot. Eth. IX. 7, 2 οἱ εὖ πεποιηκότες φιλοῦσι καὶ ἀγαπῶσι τοὺς εὖ πεπονθότας. ὸ δράσας κ.τ.λ.—i.e. ὁ δράσας τὴν χάριν ἐστι βεβαιότερος ὥστε σῴζειν τὴν χάριν ὀφειλομένην δι᾽ εὐνοίας ἐκείνου ᾧ δέδωκε τὴν χάριν. Here, as often, ὥστε is inserted where the simple infin. might have been used. Cf. c. 2, 4; Plat. Protag. p. 338 C ἀδύνατον ὥστε σοφώτερόν τιν᾽ ἑλέσθαι. τὴν χάριν—regarded from the side of both giver and recipient, thus combining the meanings ‘favour’ and ‘gratitude,’ as with gratia. ὀφειλομένην— ‘as due to him’ (i.e. to the giver). ὀφειλομένην and σῴζειν are connected, being properly used of property given in trust to another's keeping. Plat. Rep. I. p. 332 A compared with ib. p. 333 C. δι᾽ εὐνοίας—‘by (the continuation of) his goodwill towards him to whom he showed the kindness.’ δέδωκε —as in Acts, 20, 35 μακάριόν ἐστι μᾶλλον διδόναι ἢ λαμβάνειν. Livy, XXII. 13 sub fin., Sallust. Cat. 6, 5 σῴζειν—as this means ‘to retain the good-will or gratitude of his friends whom he has benefited,’ the middle might be expected: but the object of the act. is to represent the result of the benefit, not on the mind of the doer but on the mind of the recipient; the doer is said to ‘keep safe’ what the recipient ‘keeps safe’ for him, viz. τὴν χάριν. ἀμβλύτερος—‘more indifferent.’ Is it not true? ἐς—‘as a.’ Cf. Andoc. II. 23 εἰς χρήματα μεγάλας δωρέας. χάριν—free service which will win him gratitude. χάρις, a free gift, is contrasted with ὀφείλημα, a loan, and so a debt. τῆς ἐλευθερίας τῷ πιστῷ— ‘the confidence due to our liberal ideas.’ Cf. c. 37, 2 ἐλευθέρως. (Not ‘liberality.’) ἀδεῶς—‘without fear,’ lest, by helping others, we should be injuring ourselves.
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