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Τὸ πρῶτον—with θεραπεύοντες, ‘as they treated it at first with no knowledge of its nature.’ μάλιστα .. ὅσῳ καὶ μάλιστα—i.e. the mortality among them was greater than among any other class because they came in contact with the disease more than others. For the double superl. or compar. in proportion, cf. I. 68 προσήκει ἡμᾶς οὐχ ἥκιστα εἰπεῖν, ὁσῳ καὶ μέγιστα ἐγκλήματα ἔχομεν, III. 45 οὐχ ἧσσον τὰς πόλεις, ὅσῳ περὶ μεγίστων, V. 90 πρὸς ὑμῶν οὐχ ἧσσον τοῦτο, ὅσῳ καὶ ἐπὶ μεγίστῃ τιμωρίᾳ ἂν παράδειγμα γένοισθε. Cf. also c. 11, 1 καὶ ἐπὶ πόλιν δυνατωτάτην ... καὶ αὐτοὶ πλεῖστοι ἐρχόμεθα. πρὸς ἱεροῖς—ad loca sacra; cf. c. 87, 6, 94, 4. ἱκέτευσαν—the aor. sums up all the instances (complexive). ἐχρήσαντο—sc. ὅσα, which with ἱκέτευσαν=ὅσας ἱκετείας, but with ἐχρήσαντο=περὶ ὅσα. See L. and S. χράω A. III. τε—does not belong to the preceding τε, which added a third fact to οὔτε οὔτε, but=‘and so.’ ὑπὸ τοῦ κακοῦ—cf. 51, 1; but contrast 60, 6 χρήμασι νικώμενος. The verbs which commonly have ὑπὸ with things in prose are such as νικῶμαι, βλάπτομαι, διαφθείρομαι, ἀναγκάζομαι, ἡττῶμαι, πείθομαι (Isaeus only has πείθομαι and διαφθείρομαι, Lysias only ἀναγκἀζομαι, ἐπαίρομαι, διἀκειμαι) and the things so used must be such as can be easily personified, such as (1) natural phenomena, as χειμών, σεισμός, ἄπλοια, (2) external circumstances, as κίνδυνος, συμφορά, πληγαί, δεσμοί, κέρδος, χρήματα, νόμος, (3) emotions, as ἡδον ή, φθόνος, (4) words which imply a person, as λόγοι, πράγματα, δύναμις, when the person is often inserted (as in ὑπὸ τῆς τοῦ ῥήτορος δενότητος), and all the topics of rhetoric as ὑπὸ τῶν εἰκότων, ὑπὸ τοῦ δικαίου. The construction is optional in these cases, as the following examples show: Aristoph. Av. 1438 πἀντες τοῖς λόγοις ἀναπτεροῦνται, ib. 1447 ὑπὸ λόγων ἐπαίρεται; Isocr. 5, 40 τὰς πόλεις ὡμαλισμένας ὑπὸ τῶν συμφορῶν, 6, 65 ὡμαλισμένοι ταῖς συμφοραῖς.
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