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Ἤρξατο—sc. τὸ κακόν. ὑπὲρ—beyond, i.e. further inland, ‘south of.’ So the plague in Justinian's reign was said to have come from Ethiopia and Egypt: the ‘Black Death’ was traced to the Levant. τὴν πολλήν—limiting apposition.
Ἐν τῷ Πειραιεῖ—it was imported, as in the case of the plague under Justinian. φάρμακα—so in Germany and England in 1349 the Jews were supposed to have poisoned the wells. The plague had broken out a few days after the Peloponnesians invaded Attica. φρέατα—‘cisterns,’ for rainwater. κρῆναι—see c. 15, 5. οὔπω—probably the astronomer Meton suggested them in 414 B.C.
Ἀφ᾽ ὅτου—cf. 49, 2, 62, 4, 68, 2. Contrast the phrase ἐξ ὅτου=‘since which time.’ εἰκὸς ἦν—c. 10, 1. τὰς αἰτίας— = τὰς αἰτίας τοσαύτης μεταβολῆς, ἅστινας υομίζει ἱκανὰς εἶναι. In the adscript, δύναμιν σχεῖν was meant to explain ἱκανὰς εἶναι, ἐς τὸ μεταστῆσαι to explain μεταβολῆς. (To the list of those who bracket here, which is given in the not. crit., add Hampke, Studien, p. 16). ἀφ᾽ ὧν ... σκοπῶν —take ταῦτα below with ἀφ᾽ ὧν,=the symptoms, by which it might be recognised in future. Cf. I. 21, 2 ἀπ᾽ αὐτῶν τῶν ἔργων σκοποῦσι, III. 38, 4 ἀπὸ τῶν εὖ εἰπόντων σκοποῦντες. ἄν— belongs to ἔχοι, cf. c. 41, 1.
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