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Ἐξ αὐτῶν—after the symptoms just described. See c. 4, 2.

πταρμὸς—due to inflammation of the mucous membrane.

καὶ ἐν οὐ πολλῷ—second stage: the disease attacks the chest, the consequence of the passage of the morbid action along the membrane that lines the respiratory organ being violent coughing. For ἐν οὐ πολλῷ contrast c. 41, 3.

πόνος—‘the disorder.’

ὁπότε—third stage: the disease, on reaching the stomach, caused vomiting and great distress, and, in most cases, ineffectual retching; then the skin turned livid, and broke out in vesicles which degenerated into ulcers. Then came the crisis.

καρδίαν—‘stomach.’

στηρίξειεν— intrans., a medical use.

ἀποκαθάρσεις—‘vomits of bile.’

ὅσαι—evidently referring to different terms used to denote the various colours that bile has in different diseases, or stages of a disease; e.g. in cholera, the bile is first dark brown, then light green. Probably, as Grote says, Thuc. was acquainted with medical terms.

ὑπὸ ἰατρῶν ὠνομασμέναι—though the subject is non-personal, yet, if it be a nom, or fem. noun, it is not uncommon to find the agent with the perf. pass. expressed by ὑπό, instead of by the regular dat.: see on c. 29, 3.

ταλαιπωρίας—‘distress’ (tenesmus): a medical term.

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