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Τὸ μὲν προταλαιπωρεῖν—the art. and inf. depend, as accus of respect, on πρόθυμος ἦν. The purpose of the art, is to contrast the two clauses introduced by μὲν ... δέ, since below ὅ τι δὲ ἤδη ἡδὺ = τὸ δὲ ἤδη ἡδύ. Cf. c. 87, 5, VI. 17 τὸ μὲν ἐς τὴν γῆν ἐσβάλλειν, ικανοί εἰσι, τῷ δὲ ναυτικῷ οὐκ ἂν δύναιντο βλάπτειν. τῷ δόξαντι καλῷ—‘for the sake of what seemed honourable’; cf. VIII. 63 οὐκέτι ἄλλοις ἢ σφίσιν αὐτοῖς ταλαιπωροῦντας. τῷ δόξαντι καλῷ differs from τῷ καλῷ in that the former denotes that no man had the will to strive after that which he himself conceived to be good; much less would he trouble himself about Good as a principle One reflected, τοῦτό μοι δοκεῖ καλὸν εἶναι, ἀλλὰ πρὶν ἐπ᾽ αὐτὸ ἐλθεῖν διαφθαρησομαι. (There is probably no reference here to good as universally admitted, as some have supposed: δόξαν applies to individual cases.) νομίζων—the partic. again appended somewhat freely to the preceding clause. Cf. 1 above and 4 below. Here not οὐδεὶς but ἕκαστος must be supplied: somewhat similar is VI. 27 τοὺς δράσαντας ᾔδει οὐδείς, ἀλλὰ . . ἐζητοῦντο καὶ προσέτι ἐψηφίσαντο (sc. οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι); IV. 59 οὐδεὶς ... ἢν (sc. τις) οἴηταί τι πλέον σχήσειν, ἀποτρέπεται, VI. 84 ὑπολάβῃ μηδεὶς ὡς οὐδὲν προσῆκον ὑμῶν κη̣δόμεθα, γνοὺς ὅτι κ.τ.λ. ἤδη τε ἡδὺ καὶ— τε ... καὶ = sive .. sive, the first clause answering to σώματα, the second to χρήματα in 2 above. πανταχόθεν τὸ ἐς αὐτὸ κερδαλέον— = (ὅ τι) πανταχόθεν ἐς τὸ ἤδη ἡδὺ κερδαλἐον ἦν, ‘or contributed to the pleasure of the moment, regardless of the source from which it was obtained,’ i.e. men did not care how disgraceful were the means by which they strove to gratify their immediate desires. The sanctity of oaths and contracts was no longer respected; for the sake of gain fraud and crime became καλὸν καὶ χρήσιμον, and what was gained was immediately squandered. πανταχόθεν—cf. Intr. p. xl.: all means, good or bad, were alike to them. τοῦτο—cf. c. 51, 2. καλὸν—1st Cor. 15, 32 φάγωμεν καὶ πίωμεν: αὔριον γὰρ ἀποθνήσκομεν. (Thuc. does not say they really thought these base things καλόν: it was not τὸ δόξαν καλὸν that changed, but τὸ καθεστηκὸς καλόν. The public standard of morality is a very different thing from what each man in his heart thinks moral.)
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