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Τόλμαν—one of the effects of καταφρόνησις, but not always of φρόνημα, which is compatible with cowardice.

ξύνεσις—stands very close to γνώμη, but only in the intellectual sense of clear insight and circumspection. For the principle that true courage is impossible without ξύνεσις, cf. c. 40, 4. (This illustrates the close connection between Ethics and Metaphysics, so often insisted upon by modern thinkers.)

ἐκ τοῦ ὑπέρφρονος—with ἐχυρωτέραν παρέχεται. ‘Intelligence gives greater solidity to courage as the result of a consciousness of superiority’; such a consciousness of superiority is therefore desirable.

ἐλπίδι—cf. V. 102 ἐπιστάμεθα τὰ τῶν πολέμων ἔστιν ὅτε κοινοτέρας τὰς τύχας λαμβάνοντα κατὰ τὸ διαφέρον ἑκατέρων πλῆθος. ‘Courage trusts not to hope because fortune has hitherto been fair (that is the strength of the helpless); rather it trusts to insight based on a survey of realities; and that is a far safer prophet.’ In this elaborate antithesis (a) blind hope is contrasted with clear insight, (b) the foundation on which hope is built is contrasted with the foundation on which insight is built, the one being treacherous (τύχη), the other being firm, (c) there is a contrast, in the form of chiasmus, between ἐλπίδι and ὑπάρχοντα, and between τύχης and γνώμη. ἀπὸ τῆς ὁμοίας τύχης—referring to 4 above; cowards boast when τύχη has been more than ὁμοία to them: the helpless hope on when τύχη has been as much as ὁμοία to them; for an equal share of Heaven's favours is enough to make them suppose they will not be destroyed But brave men, trusting in γνώμη, can bear up even under a temporary withdrawal of their share of Heaven's favour (c. 64, 2). (These words, if retained after τὴν τόλμαν, give no sense, since there is no reason why courage should come ἀπὸ ... τύχης, or why the effect of insight on courage should be limited by such a condition.)


γνώμῃ—Thuc. does not often contrast γνώμη with τύχη, by which γνώμη may always be over-ridden. Intr. p. xli.; I. 144, 4; V. 75 τυχῃ μὲν κακιζόμενοι, γνώμῃ δὲ οἱ αὐτοὶ ἔτι ὄντες. It is common in the orators, as Antiphon, 5, 92, Andoc. 1, 140, Lys. 34, 2, Isocr. 2, 30.

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