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Ἄλλα—e.g. the rejection of the Spartan overtures for peace in 410 B.C., and the aggressive warfare of 424 B.C.

ὡς—‘as is natural’ when the administration of a great empire is entirely in the hands of the people.

... πλοῦς—sc. ἡμαρτήθη, πλοῦς being viewed as an ἔργον τοῦ πολέμου. Cf. III. 67 ἁμαρτανόμενα ἔργα, Plato, Rep. VIII. p. 544 D πόλεις ἡμαρτημένας. (ἡμαρτήθη is not impersonal, a constr. nearly confined to perf. pass.)

ἁμάρτημα πρὸς οὓς—the construction is similar to c. 44, 1 τὸ δ᾽ εὐτυχἐς, οἳ ἂν κ.τ.λ., 62, 4 καταφρόνησις δὲ ὃς ἂν κ.τ.λ.; thus ἁμάρτημα ἦν πρὸς οὓς . follows the construction of ἡμἀρτανον πρὸς οὓς . ‘It was not so much an error of judgment with regard to the people whom they were intending to attack; the blunder they made was rather that the people responsible for the expedition did not consult the interests of those who had been sent out in their subsequent measures.’

ὅσον ... ἐπιγιγνώσκοντες—sc. ἁμάρτημα ἦν. Cf. IV. 26 αἴτιον ἦν οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι προειπόντες. οἱ ἐκπέμψαντες—the extreme democrats.

οὐ τὰ πρόσφορα —of the measures taken after the mutilation of the Hermae, esp. the recall of Alcibiades.

κατὰ—‘in consequence of intrigues for the leadership of the democracy.’ Cf. κατὰ πενίαν c. 37, 1. Thuc. alludes to the position of δήμου προστάτης, recognised leader of the popular party. The list, according to [Arist.] Rep. Ath. 28, is Solon, Pisistratus, Cleisthenes, Xanthippus, Themistocles, Ephialtes, Pericles; after whom the popular leaders degenerated with Cleon and Cleophon.

τά τε—‘they conducted the military operations without vigour.’ Thuc. shifts the blame of the disaster from Nicias to the home authorities.

ἀμβλύτερα—with less vigour than they had since the war broke out.

τὰ περὶ—accus. of respect; έταρἁχθησαν being ‘ingressive.’

πρῶτον—i.e. for the first time during the war. What ruined Athens in the war was the internal discord that broke out after Pericles' death.

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