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Ἀμπρακιῶται—they had made an attack on Argos in concert with the Chaones and other tribes of barbarians in the autumn of 430 B.C. c. 68, 9. The Chaones were possibly a remnant of the Pelasgi. Hence they are sometimes treated as Greeks, though Thuc. always calls them barbarians. Grote, II. p. 234, Curtius, Hist. G. I. 104 ‘In later times they were regarded as barbarians ... but, according to their origin, they could claim perfect equality with the other branches of the Greek people.’ (Cf. Matthew Arnold, Lit. and Dogma, init.)

πᾶσαν—this elaborate undertaking is in marked contrast, with the issue, c. 82; and it is quite in Thuc.'s manner to make the opening imposing under such circumstances. Cf. c. 7, 2.

Ἀθηναίων— the Ambraciots were actuated by the tribe hatred existing in that quarter, and they had an old grudge against Phormio (c. 68). Now that Athens was in difficulties, they took the chance of revenge, and were at pains to demonstrate to Sparta that they were very important friends to her.

ἀδυνάτων— through being occupied with the fleet, and in protecting their coasts. τῶν ἀπὸ θ. .—ἀπὸ is for ἐπὶ by attraction to ξυμβοηθεῖν, ‘the Acarnanians on the sea-coast would be unable to aid’ the inland tribes.

κρατήσουσι ἔσοιτο—the indic. and opt. in the same sentence in Or. Obl. M. T 670.

ὁμοίως—‘would not find it so easy to.’

ἐλπίδα ... λαβεῖνἐλπίς ἐστι regularly has aor. infin., like εἰκός ἐστι c. 11, 8.

Ναύπακτον—this appealed equally to the Spartans, Corinthians, and Ambraciots; as the position of the conquered Messenians was a chronic insult to Sparta, Phormio interfered with the western trade of Corinth, and the Ambraciots too had their grudge against him.

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