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παρασκευῇ ... καὶ γνώμῃ—c. 7 and 8 are resumed by a chiasmus (see analysis of 7, 8). ὥρμηντο—‘made ready for war.’ Cf. I. 32, 5.
Λακ, μὲν ... Πέλ. μὲν ... ἔξω δὲ Ἀθ. δέ—the extremes and the means are contrasted, as usually with this double use of μὲν ... δέ. Πελοποννήσιοι—in the geographical sense, the dwellers in Peloponnese of whatever stock. [οἱ ἐντὸς Ἰσθμοῦ]—usually in Thucydides Πελοποννήσιοι means ‘the allies of Sparta.’ In c. 11 indeed, Archidamus is made to address the officers as Πελ. καὶ ξύμμαχοι, i.e. as politically connected and as comrades in arms, but, after that it is generally taken for granted that all the allies are included in the term Πελ. But before the war, Πελοποννήσιοι means ‘the inhabitants of Peloponnese,’ and only in this sense can the Argives and Achaeans be included in the term. If οἱ ἐντὸς is in the text, the P. of Peloponnese are contrasted with those P. outside it (Πελοποννήσιοι ἔξω Πελοποννήσου), i.e. Πελ. must mean ‘the allies of Sparta,’ which is impossible. Πελληνῆς—near Zougra. Pellene seems to have been connected politically with Sicyon (10 miles) and Phlius (14 miles) rather than with Achaea. ἔπειτα δὲ ὕστερον—cf. III. 94, 1; IV. 102, 2; v. 61, 4. In 417 the Lacedaemonians became more closely connected with Achaea. See v. 82, 1. ἔξω δὲ Π.—on the land side, Athens was wedged in between enemies. This both exposed her to invasion and hampered her own undertakings. It was with a view to breaking up this hostile combination that Demosthenes undertook the expedition into Aetolia in 427. Λοκροί—the Opuntian Locrians, with the Epicnemidian, whereas the Ozolian Locrians were allies of Athens.
ναυτικὸν—scarcely anything was done by S. with the fleet in the 1st year. Intr. p. LXXII. Κορίνθιοι—for their naval operations, see c. 33, 80, 3, 83. Μεγαρῆς—c. 92. Σικυώνιοι—c. 80, 3. Ἀμπρακιῶται—c. 80. [παρεῖχον]— Intr. p. XXXIX. αὕτη—the omission of μὲν here and in I. 125, 1. in both of which C inserts μέν, raises a difficulty. Elsewhere it is left out only when a participle prevents its use, as in the opening of c. 65, 72, 75. It is possible that αὕτη Λακ. ξυμμαχία is inserted wrongly from 6 below. (This omission is not similar to that noticed above, c. 7, 1.)
Χῖοι, Λέσβιοι— the only islands on the Aegean then retaining the position of independent allies of Athens. ἐν Ναυπάκτῳ—placed there by Athens at the close of the third Messenian War. See c. 27, 2. οἱ πλείους—Astacus (c. 30) and Oeniadae (c. 102) did not join Athens. ἄλλαι—‘and other cities (besides the αὐτόνομοι ξύμμαχοι just mentioned), namely.’ Καρία—the ἔθνη are added in the nom., in spite of the dat. preceding, because these are the four financial divisions of the πόλεις ὑποτελεῖς, so that the nominatives are as much in apposition with πόλεις as with ἔθνεσι. Καρία ... πρόσοικοι—called in the tribute lists ὁ Καρικὸς φόρος, and so Ἰωνία = ὁ Ἰωνικός, Ἑλλήσποντος = ὁ Ἑλλησπόντιος, τὰ ἐπὶ Θ. = ὁ ἐπὶ Θ. φ., νῆσοι ... Θήρας = ὁ νησιωτικὸς φ. From 436 B.C. Ionia and Caria were grouped together. Καρσὶ πρόσοικοι—for the omission of οἱ cf. c. 85, 5. It is explained by the fact that this is an official title, Kr. Gr. Gr. 50, 2, 11. νῆσοι...πᾶσαι αἱ ἄλλαι —for ὅσος Iimited by πλήν, cf. IV. 32, 2, and for οὶ ἄλλοι V. 27, 2. Μήλου καὶ Θήρας—both colonized by the Dorians about the time of their settlement in Crete, circ. 1100 B.C.
ναυτικὸν—this was a privilege belonging only to the independent allies. Cf. Intr. p. LXXIV. They were αὐτοτελεῖς.
ξυμμαχία—abstract for concrete. καὶ παρασκευὴ —the chapter is summarised in inverse order, as in c. 7, 8.
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