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Λακ, μὲν ... Πέλ. μὲν ... ἔξω δὲ Ἀθ. δέ—the extremes and the means are contrasted, as usually with this double use of μὲν ... δέ. Πελοποννήσιοι—in the geographical sense, the dwellers in Peloponnese of whatever stock. [οἱ ἐντὸς Ἰσθμοῦ]—usually in Thucydides Πελοποννήσιοι means ‘the allies of Sparta.’ In c. 11 indeed, Archidamus is made to address the officers as Πελ. καὶ ξύμμαχοι, i.e. as politically connected and as comrades in arms, but, after that it is generally taken for granted that all the allies are included in the term Πελ. But before the war, Πελοποννήσιοι means ‘the inhabitants of Peloponnese,’ and only in this sense can the Argives and Achaeans be included in the term. If οἱ ἐντὸς is in the text, the P. of Peloponnese are contrasted with those P. outside it (Πελοποννήσιοι ἔξω Πελοποννήσου), i.e. Πελ. must mean ‘the allies of Sparta,’ which is impossible. Πελληνῆς—near Zougra. Pellene seems to have been connected politically with Sicyon (10 miles) and Phlius (14 miles) rather than with Achaea. ἔπειτα δὲ ὕστερον—cf. III. 94, 1; IV. 102, 2; v. 61, 4. In 417 the Lacedaemonians became more closely connected with Achaea. See v. 82, 1. ἔξω δὲ Π.—on the land side, Athens was wedged in between enemies. This both exposed her to invasion and hampered her own undertakings. It was with a view to breaking up this hostile combination that Demosthenes undertook the expedition into Aetolia in 427. Λοκροί—the Opuntian Locrians, with the Epicnemidian, whereas the Ozolian Locrians were allies of Athens.
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