previous next


Ἐπὶ τεσσάρων—‘four deep,’ in four lines.

ἐπὶ τὴν ἑαυτῶν γῆν—with ταξάμενοι, ‘drawing up their ships with the coast of Peloponnesus at their backs’; the four lines extended back towards the coast. (This is obscure enough, but it is the only possible sense. ἐπὶ cannot mean παρὰ ‘along.’)

ἔσω [ἐπὶ]—these are not possible together; but? ὡς ἐπὶ τοῦ κ. The Peloponnesians were moving N.E. from Rhium, and therefore in the direction of Naupactus.

δεξιῷ κέρᾳ—when they began to move up the gulf, the four lines of ships turned to the right, so that there were now four abreast, the right wing leading.


Εἴκοσι—the Peloponnesians had 77 ships (c. 86, 4); as the right wing consists of 20 ships 4 abreast, the rest of the lines were probably so arranged that every fifth line consisted of only 3 ships abreast instead of 4, which would give 3 groups each consisting of 19 ships.

ταύτῃ—‘in this direction,’ towards Naupactus.

διαφύγοιεν—into the open part of the gulf, eastwards.

πλέοντα τὸν ἐπίπλουν—‘the attacking line when it bore down on them.’ Cf. 4 below ἐπιστρέψαντες τὰς ναῦς μετωπηδὸν ἔπλεον.


Ἐρήμῳ—i.e. deprived of its protection, Phormio being at Antirrhium. For the sense, not implying that there were no people in Naupactus, cf. c. 25, 1 ἀνθρώπων οὐκ ἐνόντων. κατὰ σπουδὴν—cf. c. 94, 2.

ἐμβιβάσας—imponere; the object omitted as constantly in naval and military phrases. For the double partic. see c. 4, 4.

Μεσσηνίων—from Naupactus.


Ἐπὶ κέρως—‘in single file.’

ἀπὸ ς.—cf. c. 92, 1. μετωπηδὸντὰ μέτωπα, ἐστι τὰ πρόσωπα τῶν νεῶν, παρεῖχον τοῖς ἐναντίοις. Schol. i.e. they turned to the left, into four lines, as they had been at first.

τάχους—depends on ὡς εἶχεν ἕκαστος. Xen. Hel. 4, 5, 15.


Τῶν δὲ—i.e. τούτων δὲ = πασῶν τῶν νεῶν. τὸ κέρας —i.e. the right wing, τὰς εἴκοσι ναῦς of 2 above.

τὴν ἐπιστροφὴν—cf. τὸν ἐπίπλουν in 2 above; ‘the sudden turn.’

ἐξέωσαν—technical, ‘to force an enemy to run his ship aground.’

ὅσοι μὴ— = εἰ μή τινες.


Ἀναδούμενοι—the imperf. partic. in this phrase expresses the lashing of each of the vessels. The aor. is used in VII. 74. εἷλον ἤδη—‘had already taken.’

ξὺν τοῖς ὅπλοις—c. 2, 1.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.

An XML version of this text is available for download, with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. Perseus provides credit for all accepted changes, storing new additions in a versioning system.

hide References (1 total)
  • Commentary references from this page (1):
    • Xenophon, Hellenica, 4
hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: