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καθέστασαν—when the war had broken out is not known.

πλὴν Καμαριναίων—Camarina, founded circa 600 B.C. from Syracuse, was dependent on the mother-city, revolted in 553 B.C. and was destroyed. In 492 B.C. it was restored by Hippocrates, tyrant of Gela, but shortly afterwards was again involved in war with Syracuse, and was again destroyed. Its third building occurred circa 460 B.C.

τὸ πρῶτον emphasizes ἀρχομένου.

Χαλκιδικαί—Naxos, Catana, Himera. They are so called because their origin was Chalcis in Euboea.

Ἰταλίας in the confined sense that it bears in Greek authors, the modern Calabria, the peninsula reaching to the Laus on W. and to Metapontum on E.: ἀπὸ ἄκρας Ἰαπυγίας μέχμ πορθμοῦ Σικελικοῦ is the definition of Dionysius.

κατὰ τὸ ξυγγενές—Rhegium, too, was Chalcidian.

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