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ἐτείχιζον τὸν κρημνόν—‘they proceeded to build a wall on the cliff,’ not ‘built a wall along the cliff,’ as Classen. This is the short piece of wall that ran from the κύκλος to the Portella del Fusco, and is more accurately described in § 3 as τὸ πρὸς τὸν κρημνόν. (Arnold, Grote, and Freeman understand ‘they fortified a point on the cliff,’ and assume that Nicias subsequently filled in the space between this new fort and the κύκλος with a wall which Thuc. does not mention. They increase the difficulty by placing the κύκλος too far north. Lupus, Stahl, and Fr. Muller read <ἐς> τὸν κρημνόν, but this is not necessary when the κύκλος is rightly placed, the distance now built being so short that the wall ‘to the cliff’ can be fairly called a wall ‘on the cliff.’） ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἕλους—Lysimeleia, now Pantanelli. τῶν Ἐπιπολῶν depends on ταύτῃ. διὰ τοῦ ὁμαλοῦ—a lower level than Epipolae, but not so low as the marsh.
αὖθις—again they built out westward, and made another effort to prevent the A. from reaching the harbour, but this time on the lowest level. Probably the palisade and ditch were not completed.
τὸ πρὸς τὸν κρημνόν—see on § 2. ἐκ τῆς Θάψου— it was a mistake to abandon Thapsus altogether. περὶ ὄρθρον—cf. IV. 110 νυκτὸς ἔτι καὶ περὶ ὄρθρον. Phrynichus says ὄρθρος ἐστιν ἡ ὥρα τῆς νυκτὸς καθ̓ ἣν ἀλεκτρύονες ἄδουσιν. ἄρχεται δὲ ἐνάτης ὥρας καὶ τελευτᾷ εἰς διαγελῶσαν ἡμέραν. καὶ διὰ τοῦ ἕλους—Classen takes this with διαβαδίσαντες, so that ᾗ πηλῶδες . . ἐπιθέντες is parenthetical; whereas Krüger joins it with ἐπιθέντες, which makes an awkward expression. Stahl renders ‘in fact over the marsh,’ apparently regarding it as an explanation of ἐς τὸ ὁμαλόν: but τὸ ὁμαλόν and τὸ ἕλος are different levels. Classen is probably right.
τὸ δεξιὸν κέρας—the Syr. line was facing towards the north, so that the right wing made for the city, the left ran along the left bank of the Anapus to the bridge by which the Helorine road crossed it (the Syr. had restored it since the incident mentioned in c. 66, 2); they hoped to reach Polichna, which was in the hands of the Syr. οἱ . . λογάδες—see c. 100, 1.
ἦσαν γὰρ κτλ—this gives the reason for what follows, not for what preeedes. αὐτοῖς=the Syr. ξυνεφοβήθη—‘was also put to confusion,’ like the 300. Observe the correction φυλή for φυλακή of the MSS. In Xen. Hel. IV. 2, 19 there is a false variant, φυλακαί for φυλαί.
Λάμαχος—see Intr. p. xiv. ἑαυτῶν—the plur. is often so used where one general among several is mentioned. εὐθὺς κατὰ τάχος — an instance of the tendency to multiply words, esp. adverbs, in order to obtain emphasis—e.g. πόθεν οἰκόθεν: αὐτοῦ ἐκεῖ. The same tendency is seen in Latin, esp. in comedy.
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