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τὸ πρὸς τὸν κρημνόν—see on § 2.

ἐκ τῆς Θάψου— it was a mistake to abandon Thapsus altogether.

περὶ ὄρθρον—cf. IV. 110 νυκτὸς ἔτι καὶ περὶ ὄρθρον. Phrynichus says ὄρθρος ἐστιν ὥρα τῆς νυκτὸς καθ̓ ἣν ἀλεκτρύονες ἄδουσιν. ἄρχεται δὲ ἐνάτης ὥρας καὶ τελευτᾷ εἰς διαγελῶσαν ἡμέραν.

καὶ διὰ τοῦ ἕλους—Classen takes this with διαβαδίσαντες, so that πηλῶδες . . ἐπιθέντες is parenthetical; whereas Krüger joins it with ἐπιθέντες, which makes an awkward expression. Stahl renders ‘in fact over the marsh,’ apparently regarding it as an explanation of ἐς τὸ ὁμαλόν: but τὸ ὁμαλόν and τὸ ἕλος are different levels. Classen is probably right.

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