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ᾤκουν—it should be noticed, (1) that the object of the Phoenician settlements was trade with the Sicels; (2) that the Phoenicians were the earliest to send out colonists to Sicily.

ἐπὶ τῇ θαλάσσῃ—of points on the coast, whereas παρὰ (τὴν) θάλασσαν implies extent along the coast. But the distinction is not carefully observed. II. 9 Καρία ἐπὶ θαλάσσῃ: Isocr. 5, 21 (Ἰλλυρίων) τῶν παρὰ τὸν Ἀδρίαν οἰκούντων.

ἀπολαβόντες—the constant use of participle and verb in the sentences that describe the various settlements lends a special character to these chapters. Whether or not the whole is based on Antiochus of Syracuse, the style is simple and annalistic.

ἐπικείμενα—the Aegatian Islands are meant.

ἕνεκα—MSS. ἕνεκεν, but the form in -ν is very doubtful in older Attic. The order of ἕνεκα allows of (1) τῆς πρὸς τοὺς Σ. ἕνεκα ἐμπορίας, (2) ἕνεκα τῆς πρὸς τοὺς Σ. ἐμ., (3) ἐμ. ἕνεκα τῆς πρὸς τοὺς Σ. On the other hand, ἕνεκα is not placed last in a phrase of this kind, where the epithet contains a preposition— τῆς πρὸς τ. Σ. ἐπεσέπλεονἐπ-, as in ἐπάγεσθαι, =insuper, Sta., who adds that κατὰ θάλασσαν lacks point. But it has often been noticed that a simple word (πλἐω), when compounded, loses something of its force. Hence, to show that it was by sea that the Gks. came, and not by migration from their settlements—the sea being all-important in the struggle between Gk. and Phoenician —κατὰ θ is naturally added. This kind of tautology is to be met with in English: e.g. Johnson, Idler 48 ‘Mons. Le Noir is made miserable . . by every account of a privateer caught in his cruize.’ Burke, Mr. Fox's East India Bill, ‘I have been long very deeply engaged in the preliminary enquiries, which have continued without intermission for some years.’

ἐκλιπόντες . . ξυνοικήσαντες—Thuc. joins two and even three unconnected participles to a verb, provided that the participles are not absolutely parallel.

τὰ πλείω—referring to περὶ πᾶσαν τὴν Σ. This vague use of the neut. is very common.

Μοτύην—an island about five miles N. of Lilybaeum. It was joined to the mainland by a mole, which, though under water, is still used as a track. In 397 the Carthaginians were driven from Motye by Dionysius and founded Lilybaeum.

Σολόεντα—Soloeis, the Roman Soluntum, became the eastern stronghold of the Phoenicians against the Greeks. It was a fortress, not a mere trading station. The present remains go back only to Roman times.

Πάνορμον—the modern capital Palermo, ‘la felice.’ The following list gives the principal events in the history of this famous city:— 254 B.C. Taken by the Romans from the Carthaginians. 409 A.D. Sicily conquered by Alaric. Belisarius recovers Sicily and takes Palermo by siege. The Byzantine Period begins. The Saracen Period. Palermo made capital of Sicily. Conquered by Norman adventurers. The Norman Period. The Sicilian Vespers at Palermo end the dominion of the French. The Spanish Period, leading to the attachment of Sicily to the kingdom of Naples. Garibaldi takes Palermo. Sicily united with Italy.

ξυνοικήσαντες—Stahl points out that this is contrasted with ᾤκουν περὶ π. τὴν Σ. The three towns were not new settlements of the Phoenicians.

καὶ ὅτι—cf. c. 1, 1. Two causes are constantly given in different constructions by Thuc.; a clause with ὅτι is sometimes joined to a prep. (διά, κατά, πρός) and case.

Καρχηδών—the tradition generally accepted at a later time was that Rome and Carthage were founded on the same day; but there is good evidence that Carthage was founded shortly before 800 B.C. Freeman shows that the Phoenicians were probably confined to the three towns after the Gk. settlement of Selinus, i e. after 628 B.C.

τοσοίδε—the violation of the rule that these forms refer to what follows, occurs most commonly in speeches.

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