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Συρακούσας—the brevity of this notice of the foundation and growth of S. is in striking contrast with the prolixity of modern historians when they introduce the antagonists of ancient powers

τοῦ ἐχομένου —an unusual phrase, found only here. Thuc. generally writes τοῦ ἐπιγιγνομένου .

Ἡρακλειδῶν—of these one branch, the Bacchiadae, had recently established an oligarchy at Corinth, and it is probable that Archias was himself a Bacchiad.

νήσου—Ortygia, to which modern Syracuse is confined. Livy, XXV. 24 insula quam ipsi Nason vocant.

περικλυζομένῃ—about 540 B.C. Ortygia was joined to the mainland by a mole. Cf. the lines of Ibyeus of Rhegium quoted by the Schol. on Pind. Nem. I. 1 . . παρὰ χέρσον | λίθινον ἐκλεκτὸν παλάμαισι βροτῶν . . But in Cicero's day the mole had been replaced by a bridge. At the present day the junction is a mole. Freeman, Sicily II, Note XV.

ἔξω—Achradina, a name first found in Polybius. It probably included the ‘eastern part of the hill and the low ground between the hill and the island.’ (The precise extent of Achradina is a matter of dispute. See Freeman II. Note V. It was joined to the island by Gelon (485-478), the ‘second founder’ of Syracuse.)

προστειχισθεῖσα—‘this προστειχισμός I understaud to be the work of Gelôn. He joined Ortygia and Upper Achradina by fortifying Lower Achradina.’ Freeman II. p. 447.

πολυάνθρωπος—cf. [Demosth.] and c. Neaeram 75, a speech that contains imitations of Thuc., Θησεὺς συνῴκισεν αὐτοὺς καὶ δημοκρατίαν ἐποίησε καὶ πόλις πολυάνθρωπος ἑγένετο: Xen. Vect. 4, 50 ἰσχυρῶς γὰρ ἂν καὶ αὕτη πολυάνθρωπος γένοιτο πόλις.

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