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τὰς νομιζομένας πρὸ τῆς ἀναγωγῆς—‘that were customary before the start.’ What is unusual is that the prayers were offered in common, and not by each ship independently.

ὑπὸ κήρυκος—‘praecone verba praeeunte.’

παρ᾽ ἅπαν—Diodorus says κύκλος ἅπας ἔγεμε θυμιατηρίων καὶ κρατήρων. On ordinary occasions it seems that the Strategus alone poured libations before the start of a fleet. Here ‘cups were first filled and drunk round, and then the officers and seamen made the libation’ (Bloomfield).

ξυνεπηύχοντο . . σφίσι—the σφίσι ought to refer to the subject of ξυνεπηύχοντο, but it goes back to the subject which is throughout the prominent one—i.e. those taking part in the expedition. It is best therefore to regard the sentenee as parenthetical.

ἐπὶ κέρως—‘in single file,’ opposite of μετωπηδόν or ἐπὶ μετώπον. Cf. κατὰ μίαν and ἐπὶ μίαν, ‘one behind another.’ When outside the harbour, they began raeing.

τοιοίδε—it is plain, as Stahl says, that the views expressed by Hermoerates differed from those generally put forward. But ‘speeches like this’ (of Hermoerates) need not mean more than speeches that expressed views on the situation and offered adviee.

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