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Ζάγκλη—now Messina, a city which, after suffering from every form of calamity in both aneient and modern times, is now second only to Palermo as a commercial centre. Thuc. gives no date for the foundation of Zancle and Himera (Freeman, Sicily, I. 586).

Ὀπικίᾳ=Samnium and Campania.

λῃστῶν—‘As regarded the Sikel inhabitants all Greek settlers were alike pirates. . . What is meant is that these settlers were private adventurers who were not sent forth under an aeknowledged founder, with the traditional ceremonies observed in the sending forth of a colony’ (Freeman).

ἀπὸ Κύμης—in the second and formal foundation.

Χαλκίδος—as mother-eity of Cumae.

ὄνομα—accus, according to FI. Muller, cf. II. 37 ὄνομα μὲν . . δημοκρατία κέκληται. But Kruger rightly takes it as nom.; sc. αὐτῆς from above.

ἧν . . κληθεῖσα—translate, ‘its name was at first Zancle, having received the name from the S. because . .’; i e. this is not a periphrastic form for ἐκέκλητο, but the passage is the same as Plat. Crat. 412 ἀνδρὶ ἦν ὄνομα Σοῦς: Aristoph. Av. 1293 Μενίππῳ ἦν χελιδὼν τοὔνομα: Demosth. 21, 32 ούδενὶ θεσμοθέτης ἔστ᾽ ὄνομα, and many others. The dat. is usual with ὄνομα ἔστι, but the gen. is also found, as in Demosth. 21, 32, after the passage above. For κληθεῖσα we might expect κληθείσης (αὐτῆς), but, as αὐτῆς=τῆς Ζάγκλης, the attraction to Ζάγκλη is quite natural. For the partic. following ἦν in this manner, cf. II. 67, 1 οὗ ἦν στράτευμα τῶν Ἀθηναίων πολιορκοῦν.

Σικελῶν—therefore Z. was not occupied for the first time by Gks.

δρεπανοειδές—‘The sickle-shaped peninsula is the distinguishing feature of the place; this natural breakwater has enabled the city under all changes to keep up its character as a haven of the sea’ (Freeman).

τὴν ἰδέαν—slightly pleonastic after -ειδές, but wrongly suspected by Haacke. This meaning of ἰδέα is not common.

ζάγκλον—the Etym. Mag. quotes Callimachus for ζάγκλον in the sense of δρέπανον. The coins of Z. before the name was changed bear the forms δανκ, δανκλ, δανκλη.

αὐτοί—the Chalcidians.

Σαμίων—the story is told in Herod. VI. When Miletus and Samos fell to Persia in 494, the Ionians were invited by Scythes, tyrant of Zancle, to settle in Sicily. Fugitives from Samos and Miletus adopted a suggestion of Anaxilas, tyrant of Rhegium, that they should seize Z. while Scythes and his army were absent, being occupied in the siege of some Sicel city. Cf. Aristot. Pol. 1303a Ζαγκλαῖοι Σαμίους ὑποδεξάμενοι ἐξέπεσον αὐτοί.

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