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l. 1. Ἱμέρα—marks the western limit of Gk. eneroach ment on the N. coast. It was apparently intended as a stronghold against Phoenician Solus and Panormus. It disappeared for ever in 408, when Hannibal, grandson of the Hamilcar whom Gclon had defeated at Himera in 480, eaptured the town and utterly destroyed it.

Εὐκλείδου—probably these founders came from Chaleis, as metropolis of Zancle.

στάσει—Aristot. Pol. 1303 b speaks of early factions in Syr. The banished clan, as Frceman points out, is strong enough in numbers to affect the dialect of Himera.

φωνὴ μεταξὺ . . ἐκράθη—this is the only place in Thuc. in which μεταξύ applies neither to place nor to time. The construction would be more regular if μεταξύ were ἐκ.

τῆς τε Χαλκιδέων καὶ Δ—it is usual to omit the 2nd art. after μεταξύ when the gender is the same. Δωρίς, Ἑλληνίς, Περσίς are the ordinary forms with γλῶσσα or φωνή.

ἐκράτησεν—this probably hints at some difficulty that arose between Ionian and Dorian settlers.


Ἄκραι—a fortified outpost of Syr. against the Sicels. It was not a separatc city. Freeman, Sicily II. p. 20 f.

Κασμέναι—the foundation of this second outpost of Syr. came but four years after that of Himera. The exact site is doubtful.


Καμάρινα—its foundation marks the extension of Syracusan power in the S.; Syr. retained some sort of control over it.

ἀναστάτων—the revolt in favour of independence occurred in 553 B.C. (Scymnus).

χρόνῳ—viz. 492 B.C. The war between Hippoerates of Gela and Syr. is mentioned by Herod VII. 154. Syr. was defeated at the Helorus; H. restored the Syr. prisoners in return for the cession of Camarina. He then restored C. as an outpost of Gela against Syr.

Ἱπποκράτης—tyrant of Gela 498-491 B.C.

λύτρα—for the plur. form in the pred. noun, Bloomfield quotes Ov. Met. II. 695 nitidam cape pracmia vaccam.

γενόμενος—this use of the aor. partic., for which see c. 4, 4 l. 27, is not infrequently found after another partic., λαβών, so that the first partic. is in sense subordinate to the second— ‘when he had received . . he made himself founder’—and the two are accordingly not usually co-ordinated.

ὑπὸ Γέλωνος—tyrant of Gela 491-485, and of Syracuse 485-478. He seized the tyranny of Gela on the death of Hippocrates. Camarina would not accept the wrestler Glaucus, of the famous Enboean city Carystus, whom Gelon set over it, and Camarina was consequently destroyed, and its citizens transferred to Syracuse. This destruction occurred about the same time as that of Megara. See c. 4, 2.

τὸ τρίτον—this occurred about 461 B.C. The Olympic victory of Psaumis of Camarina, assigned to 452, is celebrated by Pindar, Olymp. 4 and 5. This lends point to the words of Pindar: ἀπ᾽ ἀμαχανίας ἄγων ἐς φάος τόνδε δᾶμον ἀστῶν, and again, αἰτήσων πόλιν εὐανορίαισι τάνδε κλυταῖς δαιδάλλειν.

Γελῴων—see critical note.

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