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ἁθρόους—sc. ἡμᾶς, both Syr. and Camarina, which are also meant in ἰέναι ἐς τὴν ξυμμαχίαν. ἰέναι δὲ ἐς τὴν ξ—this describes entering into a ncw relation (cf. v. 30, 5); it shows that the σπονδαί are to be changed into a ξυμμαχία. προθυμότερον—this applies strictly only to Camarina (cf. c. 67, 2); but it is quite necdless to assume a change of subject between ἀθυμεῖν and ἰἐναι as some edd. do, explaining ἀθυμεῖν sc. ἠμᾶς, ἰέναι sc. ὑμᾶς. οἴ—the plur. after ἀπὸ Πελοποννήσου: cf. cc. 32, 2; 35, 1; 94, 1. τὰ πολέμια = τὰ πολεμικά, an Ionie use. ἐκείνην τὴν προμηθίαν κτλ—sc. εἰκός: ‘nor should any one think that that caution which consists in refusing to help either side, on the ground that you are allies of both sides, is alike fair to us and safe for you.’ (Why many edd. say that ἐκείνην τὴν προμηθίαν = ‘that boasted prudence of yours’ is not clear. The speaker deals with the third plan that Camarina may adopt. In c. 78, 4 he developed the first coursc which C. ought to have adopted already—εἰκὸς ἦν ὑμᾶς κτλ. In c. 79 he deals with the second course—a resolution to help Athens. In c. 80 he discusses the third course—neutrality.) δή—explanatory. (Many explain this, after Bauer, as ironical.)
οὐ γὰρ ἔργῳ ἴσον—‘this course is not in reality fair. as the plea of justice represents it.’ δἰ ὑμᾶς μὴ ξυμμαχήσαντας—for this construction see on c. 3, 3. It is amusing to notice how the inaccurate use of the word ξυμμαχία in this speech—see on c. 75, 3 n.—leads to a confusion here between ξυμμάχους, used in the loose sense above to include σπονδαί, and ξυμμαχήσαντας, used in the strict sense here. μὴ ξυμμαχήσαντας (μηδετέροις) is here substituted for μηδετέροις βοηθήσαντας. ὅ τε παθών = the Syracusans. The aor. has the force of the fut. perf., = qui victus fuerit (Baner). οὐκ ἠμύνατε . . οὐκ ἐκωλύσατε—the aor. is here substituted for the fut. for the sake of bringing the inevitable result vividly before the hearers. M.T. § 61. The speaker looks forward to the time when the defeat has actually taken place. Cf. St. James Epistle c. v. ἐθησαυρίσατε ἐν ἐσχάταις ἡμέραις, with Mayor's note. For the perf. so used see II. 8, 4. σωθῆναι—inf. of purpose, in which the use of the pass. is somewhat rare. καίτοι—‘and surely,’ resuming the main thought that the right course is to aid Syr. κάλλιον—than neutrality, with its consequences. Observe the argument from τὸ καλόν. τὴν κοινὴν ὠφελίαν—‘the common welfare,’ = τὴν ἐλευθερίαν τῶν Σικελιωτῶν (Schol.). φίλους δή—ironical, ‘your good friends.’
οὐδὲν ἔργον—‘no need,’ used also with a genitive. δεόμεθα δέ—answering ἐκδιδάσκειν μέν, ‘we entreat you’ to act on your knowledge, that being more to the purpose than ἐκδιδάσκειν. καὶ μαρτυρόμεθα ἅμα . . ὅτι—‘we solemnly declare, if we fail to persuade you (by our speech), that while the Ionians our inveterate enemies are plotting against us, you our fellow Dorians are betraying us.’ εἰ μὴ πείσομεν—it is difficult to say whether this is protasis to μαρτυρόμεθα or to έπιβουλευόμεθα μὲν . . προδιδόμεθα δέ. (1) We might understand προδιδόμεθα ὑπὸ ὑμῶν εἰ μὴ πείσομεν, the pres. being used—as esp. often with δίδωμι and γίγνομαι and compounds—for an action only beginning. (The clause ἐπιβουλευόμεθα μέν is in sense subordinate to προδιδόμεθα δέ.) (2) But it is better to understand μαρτυρόμεθα εἰ μὴ πείσομεν. For the syntax cf. Lysias 24, 13 εἰ τοῦτο πείσει, τὶ με κωλύει κληροῦσθαι; (where Frohberger reads κωλύσει, as Hude πείθομεν here), and esp. Andoc. 3, 21 εἴ τις ὑμῶν ἀχθεσθήσεται, παραιτοῦμαι, where the pres. is exactly parallel to μαρτυρόμεθα.
καὶ εἰ καταστρέψονται—Classen thinks that the whole section depends still on μαρτυρόμεθα. But Stahl is probably right in regarding the sentence as a transition to the O.R. Thus κρατήσουσι is parallel to μαρτυρόμεθα, and we have to supply εἰ μὴ πεἰσομεν. ‘(If we fail to persuade you, then,) in case they conquer us, their victory will be due to your decision’ (γνώμαις, like sententiis vestris, the resolution resulting from the votes). τῷ δ᾽ αὑτῶν ὀ—‘the honour will fall to their own name,’ not to yours. For this use of ὄνομα cf. VII. 64 τὸ μέγα ὄνομα τῶν Ἀθηνῶν. τιμηθήσονται—rare for τιμήσονται. So ὠφεληθής ομαι is rarer than ὠφελήσομαι. ἆθλον—‘prize,’ neut., predicate to ἄλλον τινά. τῆς αἰτίας κτλ—lit. ‘you will equally pay the penalty of being the cause of our dangers.’ Edd. do not agree on the meaning of these words. (a) Recent edd. follow Portus and take τῆς αἰτίας as the charge for which the penalty will be exacted— i.e. ‘we shall punish you for having caused our dangers.’ (b) Arnold and Bloomfield understand τῆς αἰτίας as defining the τιμωρία, ‘you will suffer the penalty of (having been) the cause of our dangers,’ by refusing to help us; and of course that position would be an unpleasant one. According to (a) the woids convey a threat; according to (b), only a hint of unpleasantness.
ἤδη—‘without hesitation.’ τὴν αὐτίκα ἀ. δουλείαν—Wilkins, following Bauer, renders ‘slavery with its temporary immunity from danger,’ so that αὐτἰκα qualifies ἀκινδύνως. But the sense is ‘immediate (and certain) dependence which involves no risk,’ in contrast with the hope of avoiding subjection to Athens by facing the risk involved in fighting with Syracuse. ‘If you refuse to join, you escape danger but accept dependence: if you consent, you accept danger but escape dependence.’ Hence both αὐτίκα and ἀκινδύνως qualify δουλεία. Cf. I. 22 ἡ ἄντικρυς ἐλευθερία, VIII. 64 ἡ ἄντικρυς ἐλευθερία, and perhaps στρατιὰ ἔτι = ‘remforcements,’ though when no art. is present the adv. belongs in some measure to the verb. δουλείαν—opposed to μὴ δεσπότας λαβεῖν below. The speaker in this section talks as though only two courses were open— either to join the Athenians (= δουλεία), or to join Syr. He adroitly leaves out the third course—neutrality, which accord ing to § 4 is out of the question. On δουλεία and δεσπόται see c. 77, 1. ἢ κἂν κτλ—lit. ‘or else (choose) not to submit disgracefully to these men and to avoid our enmity—which would not be small—in which case you would share in our victory.’ I agree with Stahl that κἄν belongs to περιγενόμενοι only, and that λαβεῖν and διαφυγεῖν depend directly on αἱρεῖσθε: there is nothing hypothetical about the choice; it is immediate (ἤδη) and fiual, being either δουλεία or μὴ λαβεῖν τι καὶ διαφυγεῖν τι. περιγενόμενοι ἄν is in apodosis, implying εἰ αἱροῖσθε, περιγένοισθε ἄν. Others take ἄν either with the infins. only or with the partic. and the infins. The placing of ἄν before a partic. frequently produces difficulty. τὴν πρὸς ἡμᾶς ἔχθραν—‘enmity with us’; cf. φανερὰν ἔχθραν πρὸς Κορινθίους κτήσασθαι I. 42. μὴ ἄν—with γενομένην only = ἣ μὴ ἂν βραχεῖα γένοιτο, i.e. the generic or characteristic μή piobably. We might, however, say that the passage implies a warning or command; it is solemn and emphatic. Cf. c. 102 νομίσαντες μὴ ἂν ἔτι ἱκανοὶ γενέσθαι. (There is difference of opinion about this μή. Goodwin (M. T. § 688) views it as an ‘irregularity’; Bohme-Widmann say that ‘μή with potential inf. or partic. after verbs of saying and thinking is common’; Fr. Muller says the μή is ‘under the influence of the inf. διαφυγεῖν.’ This lends point to Prof. Gildersleeve's remark that ‘to understand οὐ and μή a certain mobility is necessary.’ A.J.P. July 1892, p. 259.) βραχεῖαν—probably ‘small,’ a common meaning in Thuc., though some passages are certainly ambiguous. In VII. 14 βραχεῖα ἀκμὴ πληρώματος, the Schol. and Plutarch understood βραχεῖα as ‘short-lived,’ whereas modern edd. render ‘the efficient part of a crew is small.’
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