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ἔπεμψαν μὲν . . ἔπεμψαν δέ—cf. I. 85 πέμπετε μὲν . . πέμπετε δέ. The examples of epanaphora in Thuc. are not very numerous; the μέν is sometimes omitted.

ἐς Καρχηδόνα—nothing came of this embassy This shows that at least Athens hoped to gain some influence at Carthage. See c. 34, where Hermocrates suggests the possibility of an alliance between Carthage and Syr. against Athens.

Τυρσηνίαν—Etruria, north of the Tiber, the south being Ὀπική (c. 4, 5) (Arnold). In 415 the Etruscans were still powerful. They carried on trade with Athens and Sicily. In 480 they with the Carthaginians had been defeated by Syr. with Agrigentum at the great battle of Himera. They actually sent help, and are included among the allies of Athens in VII. 57 Τυρσηνῶν τινες κατὰ (‘owing to’) διαφορὰν Συρακοσίων.

καὶ αὐτῶν—‘of their own accord.’

τὸν περιτειχισμόν—cf. c. 71, 2 init.

ὅσα ἔδει—sc. ἑτοιμάζειν.

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