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ἐπειδὴ γὰρfrom the time that D. was occupied for the injury of the country, at first by the whole army, after being fortified by it during this summer, and afterwards by garrisons reheving one another at fixed intervals. (This trans. takes ὑπὸ πάσης τῆς ς. both with τειχισθεῖσα and with ἐπῳκεῖτο, not, as is usually done, with τειχισθεῖσα only)

φρουραῖς—replacing the gen. with ὑπό.

ἔβλαπτε—the subj. to be supplied is Δ. τειχισθεῖσα.

ὀλέθρῳ—a strong word, ‘devastation,’ like the vastitas Italiae which Hannibal saw in a vision. ὄλεθρος is not generally used with things; it is as though a pest were destroying their resources

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