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δι᾽ —the plur. beeause he sums up all the causes that led to their impoverisation, namely the losses of individuals and the losses of the treasury resulting from the φιλονικία above described.

καὶ τότε—other causes of impoverisation are now added, namely those resulting from the fortification of Decelea. ‘For these reasons and because of the serious damage which was being then caused by D. and the other expenses that fell heavily on them.’

ὑπὸ τῆς Δ. . . . βλαπτούσης—this construction, in which the partic. has the force of a verbal subst., is less common in Gk. than in Latin (ante urbem conditam). It seems that it is not used unless the noun and prep. would make sense without the partic; the only exception being ἅμα with expressions of time. Cf. c. 42.2 διὰ τὴν Δεκέλειαν τειχιζομένην; II. 49 μετὰ ταῦτα λωφήσαντα. It is oftenest found with ἅμα, μετὰ with accus., and ἐπὶ with gen., as Herod. I. 15 ἐπὶ τούτου τυραννεύοντος. (See Gildersleeve in A. J. P. July '92)

τῶν . . προσπιπτόντων — gen. abs., the two causes being again differently expressed.

ἀδύνατοι . . . τοῖς χρήμασι—on the analogy of δύνατος and δύναμαι with dat.

τὴν εἰκοστὴν—a tax of five per cent on all imports and exports within the A. empire. Probably this system lasted, with the exception of Chalcedon (? others), to the end of the war. είκοστολόγοι were appointed to collect it in the different poits, and, according to Aristophanes, they sometimes carried on smuggling on their own account; and Aegina seems to have become a sort of depot for contraband goods smuggled out of Attic territory to the Peloponnese. Aegina was a free port. (Cf. Gilbert, Beitrage zur innern Geschichte Athens, p. 286.) The establishment of the εἰκοστὴ is the beginning of important financial reforms.

καὶ πρίνas before.

πολλῷ μείζους . . . ὅσῳ καὶ μείζων—a double compar or superl. is the way to express proportion. Cf. I. 68 προσήκει ἡμᾶς οῦχ ἥκιστα εὶπεῖν, ὅσῳ καὶ μέγιστα έγκλήματα ἔχομεν; c. 41.3.

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