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νόσῳ—esp. those encamped between the double walls below the cliff.

κατ᾽ ἀμφότεραfor two reasons, which are then given, viz. (1) the season, (2) the place.

οὔσης . . . χαλεπὸν ἦν—see on c. 13.2. 10

χαλεπὸνunhealthy, like βαρυς, gravis. The unhealthiness of the marshy ground made it difficult to lay siege to Syracuse by land. The Romans found this out in 212, Livy 24.26tempore autumni et locis natura gravibus, multo tamen magis extra urbem quam in urbe, intoleranda vis aestus omnium ferme corpora movit.

ἀνέλπιστα—the pessimism that usually accompanies bad health.

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