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For our alliance with Athens, which rested on the common defence against the Medes, long ago lost the necessary basis of confidence, seeing that the Athenians have reduced the allied cities one after another to subjection.

περὶ γὰρ τοῦ δικαίου καὶ ἀρετῆς: “concerning the justice of our cause and the honesty of our intentions.” περὶ τοῦ δικαίως αὐτῶν ἀφίστασθαι, καὶ μὴ διὰ κακίαν τε καὶ πανουργίαν, Schol. ‘τὸ δίκαιον corresponds to πρόφασις ἐπιεικής above, ἀρετῆς refers to χείρους.’ St. The force of the art. extends to ἀρετῆς. Kühn. 451, 1; 463, 2. The whole phrase includes everything that is demanded not only by the strict letter of the law, but also by considerations of equity and morality. (On ἀρετή, magnanimity, fair or generous dealing, see Introd. to Book I. p. 36.) The reference is, however, not merely to the present revolt of the Mytileneans from the Athenians, but to their whole mutual relation, which is to be the basis of the judgment concerning the Mytileneans for the future. They base their request for admission to the Peloponnesian alliance on grounds, first, of worthiness, showing that for the best reasons and as soon as possible they had revolted from the Athenians (c. 10 to c. 13. § 2), second, of expediency and advantage to the Lacedaemonians (c. 13. § 3-6). The two main ideas are summed up c. 13. 14 ἵνα φαίνησθε . . . βλάπτοντες. —2. εἰδότες οὔτε . . . γίγνοιντο καὶ τἆλλα ὁμοιότροποι εἶεν: Cl. and Steup understand ἰδιῶται καὶ πόλεις as subj. of γίγνοιντο, which is taken to mean, bear themselves (‘sich benehmen, verhalten’; see on i. 37. 12). The sense would then be: “Friendship between individuals and alliance between states cannot last, unless they bear themselves toward one another with a mutual recognition of honesty of purpose and are in other respects like in character.” But see App.— 4.

ἐς οὐδέν: in any respect. Cf. vii. 59. 10; 87. 23.—

μετ̓ ἀρετῆς δοκούσης: =μετὰ δοκήσεως τῆς ἀρετῆς, and δοκούσης signifies not appearance, but well grounded belief. οὐ γὰρ δὴ τὴν προσποιητὴν λέγει, Schol.—5.

ὁμοιότροποι: nearly equiv. to ἴσοι τῇ γνώμῃ. Also i. 6. 24; vii. 55. 6; viii. 96. 27. The adv. occurs vi. 20. 12. Cf. Hdt. viii. 144. 16 ἤθεα ὁμότροπα.—ἐν γὰρ τῷ διαλλάσσοντι τῆς γνώμης . . . καθίστανται: for on divergence of sentiment rests diversity of action. Bl. cites an imitation of the passage in Procop. Bell. Vand. 145, 32 τῷ διαλλάσσοντι τῆς γνώμης. διαλλάσσειν is intr., as in Hdt. vii. 70. 4. The use of neut. partic. or adj. for abstract noun is a favourite one with Thucydides. It presents to the mind the abstract quality in operation. GMT. 829 a; H. 966 b; Kühn. 403 a, γ.

δέ: now, effects the transition to the special case. Cf. i. 32. 7; 121. 1; ii. 64. 28.—

Ἀθηναίοις ξυμμαχία ἐγένετο πρῶτον: from what follows it is clear that the reference is to the beginning of the closer connexion of the Lesbians with Athens, i.e. the rise of the Delian confederation (i. 95). The orator represents Sparta's withdrawal from the Median war as preceding, not following, the formation of that alliance, in order not only to put the conduct of his state toward Sparta in a favourable light, but also to avoid touching the latter in a sensitive spot. Cf. i. 75. § 2, and see Steup, Rh. Mus. xxxv. p. 330 f.—8.

ἀπολιπόντων ἐκ: this rare const. occurs also v. 4. 11 ἀπολιπόντες ἐκ τῶν Συρακουσῶν. Kühn. 447 c.; Matth. 495, 1.—9.

τὰ ὑπόλοιπα: what yet remained, with τῶν ἔργων, as i. 75. 5, with τοῦ βαρβάρου.

ξύμμαχοι μέντοι kte(.: we became allies, not to the Athenians for the enslavement of the Greeks, but to the Greeks for their emancipation from the Mede. The dats. Ἀθηναίοις (11) and τοῖς Ἕλλησι (12) belong grammatieally to ξύμμαχοι ἐγενόμεθα, though the influence of the verbal nouns καταδουλώσει and ἐλευθερώσει on these dats., as in vi. 76. 20, is not excluded. This view, which is generally adopted, is supported by the const. in c. 13. 9, 10. But Kr. and Wilkins construe Ἀθηναίοις and τοῖς Ἕλλησι as dativi commodi with the verbal nouns alone. By οἱ Ἕλληνες are meant, both here and c. 13. 9 (cf. i. 130. 16; 140. 21), the states of the Delian confederation, whose treasurers were called Ἑλληνοταμίαι (i. 96. 6).—

καταδουλώσει: occurs also vii. 66. 6; Plato Legg. 776 d; elsewhere prob. only in late writers.—11.

ἐλευθερώσει: in this sense, c. 39. 39; Hdt. ix. 45. 18; freedom to slaves, i. 132. 22; Arist. Pol. v. 11. 19; license, Plato Rep. 561 a.—

ἀπὸ τοῦ Μήδου: const. after the verbal noun as after the verb in i. 95. 3; ii. 71. 10; viii. 46. 21.

μέχρι: while, as in c. 98. 1. Kühn. 567, 1.—

ἀπὸ τοῦ ἴσου: on terms of equality. κατὰ τὴν ἰσονομίαν, Schol. On ἀπό in this sense, see Kühn. 430, 1, 3 h. See on i. 77. 8. —

ἡγοῦντο: abs., maintained their hegemony, as in i. 19. 2; 77. 23. Cf. ἐξηγεῖσθαι, i. 76. 3; 95. 26.— 14.

δούλωσιν: a Thucydidean noun, found also i. 141. 6; Plato Legg. 791 d. —15.

ἐπειγομένους: urging on, Ross's and Bk.'s conjecture, for the vulgate ἐπαγομένους, seems to be required to contrast with ἀνιέντας, and has been adopted by St. and Cl. Cf. Va. tendentes ad. It is trans. also in c. 2. 14; iv. 5. 9; vi. 100. 5; viii. 9. 2; 82. 9. See App.

ἀδύνατοι δὲ ὄντες . . . ἀμύνεσθαι: and disabled by diversity of opinion from combining and defending themselves. Although in the development of the thought the subj. is divided into ξύμμαχοι πλὴν ἡμῶν καὶ Χίων and ἡμεῖς, the undivided subj. is to be understood with ἀδύνατοι ὄντες at the beginning. διὰ πολυψηφίαν belongs to ἀδύνατοι ὄντες, καθ̓ ἓν γενόμενοι to ἀμύνεσθαι. πολυψηφία is diversity of opinion naturally arising from the fact that so many had the right to vote. The disadvantages of the ἰσοψηφία of the Peloponnesian alliance, which resulted in πολυψηφία, are set forth in i. 141. § 6, 7. The word is not found elsewhere.

δή: scilicet, intimates what is expressed in τῷ ὀνόματι. The ironical force occurs as early as Homer (A 110). Cf. iv. 46. 18, 20; 67. 17; vi. 10. 23; 54. 18; and δῆθεν, i. 92. 3; 127. 2. Kr. Spr. 69, 17, 2; Kühn. 500, 3.—19.

πιστούς: to be trusted. Cf. c. 92. 7.—

παραδείγμασι τοῖς προγεγενημένοις χρώμενοι: since the παραδείγματα must have been facts already accomplished, Weidner's conjecture of the pf. for the pres. (προγεγενημένοις for προγιγνομένοις) is necessary here, as well as in i. 23. 25. See Parerga Dinarch. et Thuc., 1875, p. 22. Cf. Procop. B. V. i. 10 παραδείγμασι δὲ τῶν προγεγενημένων χρωμένους—20. οὐ γὰρ κτἑ.: for it was not likely that they after subduing those whom they had made sharers in the treaty with us would not have done the same to us who were left, if ever they had been able. So Bm. correctly explains. δρᾶσαι, as well as καταστρέψασθαι, refers to the past; hence Dobree's conjecture δυνηθεῖεν, Kr.'s δυνηθείησαν, are unnecessary. The arrangement is paratactic, though the first clause is in sense subord., as in i. 28. 15; 35. 4. On this form of apod. in unreal cond. (οὐ γὰρ εἰκὸς ἦν αὐτοὺς μὴ δρᾶσαι τοῦτο), see GMT. 420, 421; Kr. Spr. 53, 2, 7; Kühn. 392 b, 4. Cf. c. 40. 26; 74. 11; vi. 78. 22.

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