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The Ambraciots from the city coming to bring aid to their friends are surprised by Demosthenes before daybreak and most of them destroyed.

οἱ ἐκ τῆς πόλεως Ἀμπρακιῶται: cf. c. 110.—2.

ἐπ̓ Ἰδομενήν: in c. 113. 10 Ἰδομεναί. See on c. 105. 5. The Mss. have Ἰδομένη and Ἰδομέναι, but see St. Qu. Gr.^{2} p. 34, and on c. 94. 4. For the position of these two heights, which acc. to l. 20 and c. 110. 3, are to be sought on Amphilochian territory, see Bursian i. p. 39, and Oberhummer, Akarnanien, p. 110.—

ἐστόν: construed with the pred. Cf. iv. 102. 13; Hdt. vi. 112. 3. G. 904; H. 610; Kr. Spr. 63, 6; Kühn. 369, 3.—

Ἰδομενή: rejected as a gloss by v. H. and St.; but cf. ii. 18. 3, 5; 30. 6, 8.—3.

οἱ προαποσταλέντες: cf. c. 110. 5.—4.

ἀπὸ τοῦ στρατοπέδου: i.e. detached from the main army.—5.

ἔφθασαν προκαταλαβόντες: cf. φθάσαντες προκατέλαβον, iv. 127. 14. For similar pleonasms, see on c. 53. 9. προκαταλαβόντες belongs to ἔλαθον as well as to ἔφθασαν.—τὸν ἐλάσσω: the const. with προαναβάντες without prep. is rather surprising, since Thuc. never construes ἀναβαίνειν with the simple acc.; but this const. is found in Plato Phaedo 113d, and later authors, e.g. Dio C. lx. 23; App. i. p. 175; Paus. vi. 16. 9. Kr. conjectured ἐς τὸν δ᾽ ἐλάσσω, and Rauchenstein (Philol. xxxv. p. 592) proposed εἶχον for ἔτυχον.

ἐχώρει: went forward; the decisive events following in the pres., ἐπιπίπτει (10) τρέπουσι (17), and the narration continuing in the aor.—

καὶ τὸ ἄλλο στράτευμα: opp. to οἱ προαποσταλέντες (3). Cf. τῇ ἄλλῃ στρατιᾷ, c. 110. 7.—8.

ἀπὸ ἑσπέρας εὐθύς: immediately after nightfall, as in viii. 27. 27 (without εὐθύς, vii. 29. 8). Cf. ἀπὸ πρώτου ὕπνου, vii. 43. 17. The march lasted, therefore, all night. —

ἐπὶ τῆς ἐσβολῆς: with ἐχώρει, toward the pass, which led up from the plain between the two hills, and so to the ascent to that occupied by the Ambraciots. ἐσβολή, as in iv. 83. 6; 127. 13; Hdt. vii. 172. 9; 175. 10; Xen. Anab. i. 2. 21; Hell. v. 4. 48.

ἅμα ὄρθρῳ: at daybreak, which comports with νυκτὸς ἔτι οὔσης, Cf. ii. 3. 17 ἔτι νύκτα καὶ αὐτὸ τὸ περίορθρον, iv. 110. 4 νυκτὸς ἔτι καὶ περὶ ὄρθρον, vi. 101. 13 περὶ ὄρθρον, Plato Prot. 310 a τῆς παρ<*>λθούς ης νυντὸς ταντησὶ ἔτι βαθέος ὄρθρου. On the meaning of ὄρθρος (the interval between the first cock-crow and morning twilight), see Unger, Philol. xliii. p. 594 f. —10.

ἔτι ἐν ταῖς εὐναῖς: as in iv. 32. 2. Cf. Tac. Ann. i. 50 strati etiam tum per cubilia.—12.

τοὺς ἑαυτῶν εἶναι: sc. τοὺς ἐπιπίπτοντας.

τοὺς Μεσσηνίους: cf. c. 107. 5, 23; 108. 8.—13.

πρώτους προύταξε: for the pleonasm, see on —

ἐπίτηδες: prudently. Schol. ἐσκεμμένως. The adv. is found only here in Thuc.—14.

ἐκέλευε: for the impf. where the aor. would seem more natural, see GMT. 57; Kr. Spr. 53, 2, 8; Kühn. 383, 3. —

Δωρίδα γλῶσσαν: cf. i. 138. 4; ii. 68. 14; and vi. 5. 5 Δωρὶς φωνή. See on c. 103. 2.—

γλῶσσαν ἱέντας: as in Hdt. i. 57. 1; ix. 16. 13; Soph. El. 596. The const., which occurs only here in Thuc., is common in Hom., Hdt., and the Attic poets. Cf. ὄπα ἱέναι, Hom. Γ 152, 221; μ 192; φωνὴν ἱέναι, Hdt. ii. 2. 11; iv. 23. 7; 135. 15; Ar. Acharn. 747; Eq. 522; Vesp. 562; Aesch. Choeph. 563; γῆρυν ἱέναι, Ar. Aves 233; φθογγὰς ἱέναι, Eur. Hec. 338; κω<*>τὸν ἱέναι, Soph. Aj. 851. It occurs twice in Plato (Legg. 890 d; Phileb. 51 d). Cf. Lat. vocem mittere.—15.

πίστιν παρεχομένους: inspiring confidence. Cf. vi. 17. 3.—16.

τῇ ὄψει: by sight, with the eyes (cf. c. 38. 20; iv. 34. 5; 126. 32; vii. 75. 8), added here because the antithesis ἀκουομένους μὲν τῇ ἀκοῇ is in mind. For similar pleonasms, cf. ἔθεον δρόμῳ, c. 111. 8; λόγῳ εἶπον, i. 23. 1; προλοχίζουσι ἐνέδραις, ii. 81. 24 (cf. l. 22 below). Others render “not distinguished by their appearance.”

τρέπουσι: sudden transition from the general to his troops. See on c. 51. 16, and cf. Xen. An. iii. 3. 7. —

αὐτοῦ: on the spot. Cf. c. 81. 15; 98. 11.

προκατειλημμένων τῶν ὁδῶν: cf. l. 5; 110. 7.—

τῶν Ἀμφιλόχων: cf. c. 107. 8, 25.—21.

πρὸς ὁπλίτας: cf. c. 105. 3. For πρός, against, see on c. 43. 15.—

τῶν δὲ ἀπείρων καὶ ἀνεπιστημόνων: closely connected with and balancing τῶν μὲν . . . ἐμπείρων ὄντων, and hence also in gen. abs., although the subj. is the same as that of the leading verb. Cf. c. 49. 13; 55. 5, and see on c. 13. 30.— 22.

ἐσπίπτοντες . . . διέφθειροντο: cf. c. 98. 7.—

τὰς προλελοχισμένας: cf. c. 110. 6.

πᾶσαν ἰδέαν: see on c. 81. 22. —24.

ἐτράποντό τινες: the partial subj. is separated from the general one contained in χωρήσαντες, as in i. 49. 14.—25.

τὰς Ἀττικὰς ναῦς: cf. c. 107. 3, 7.—26.

ἅμα τοῦ ἔργου τῇ ξυντυχίᾳ: to be taken with παραπλεούσαις, sailing along the coast at the moment of the occurrence of the action. Cf. i. 33. 1 ξυντυχία . . . τῆς ἡμετέρας χρείας. τὸ ἔργον in this sense also i. 105. 24; 107. 28; ii. 89. 42; iv. 32. 24; 72. 21; viii. 42. 12.—

προσένευσαν: the verb, which is found only here in Thuc., occurs also in Plut. Mar. 37; Luc. Bis Acc. 21; Ael. V. H. i. 1.—28.

εἰ δεῖ: if it must be, as in ii. 74. 3; vii. 48. 30; Dem. xx. 53. Thuc. does not tell the fate of these fugitives, but the expression εἰ δεῖ, διαφθαρῆναι favours the inference that they received no mercy from the Athenian crew.—29.

τῶν βαρβάρων: adj. Cf. ii. 68. 15 οἱ δὲ ἄλλοι Ἀμφίλοχοι βάρβαροἱ εἰσιν. ‘The Ambraciots affected to regard the Amphilochians as barbarians, because they were in reality a mixed race.’ Arn.

ὀλίγοι ἀπὸ πολλῶν ἐσώθησαν: this formula as in i. 110. 2; vii. 87. 26. Kühn. 414, N. 4. See on c. 24. 12.— 32.

τροπαῖα: the pl. as in v. 3. 16; vii. 24. 3; 41. 12; 45. 1. Here to be accounted for prob. by the divisions of the army mentioned in c. 110. § 2; 112. § 2.

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