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Do not allow yourselves to be deceived in this case, but recognize that the Mytileneans have been guilty of an unpardonable crime, in that they have taken advantage of our embarrassment, in order to revolt, although they were far more favoured than other allies. § 1-5. All are alike guilty, the demos as well as the aristocrats, and untimely forbearance would only occasion further revolts, and bring upon you greater and greater losses. § 6-8. ὧν: sc. ἐπιτηδευμάτων ὧν εἶπεν ἄρτι, Schol. It covers the whole course of the Athenians as described in c. 38. § 4-7. The rel. is emphatic, as in c. 43. 1; 46. 20; i. 9. 19, etc.— ἀποφαίνω: I declare, as in ii. 62. 10. Cf. c. 67. 10. v. H.'s conjecture, ἀποφανῶ, is unnecessary.—2. δή: with the sup. as in c. 113. 22; i. 1. 8; vii. 87. 23, and freq.— μίαν πόλιν: appos. to Μυτιληναίους, as viii. 40. 7 τοῖς Χίοις . . . μιᾷ γε πόλει . . . πλεῖστοι γενόμενοι. For similar expressions, cf. c. 113. 21; i. 80. 13; vi. 20. 8; viii. 68. 5. Kr. Spr. 49, 10, 5. οἵτινες: without τούτοις, as in v. 16. 16, about equiv. to εἴ τινες. Kr. Spr. 51, 13, 3.— δυνατοί: without ὄντες, co-ord. with the partic. ἀναγκασθέντες, as in c. 38. 22 ἄριστοι is with βουλόμενος and ἀνταγωνιζόμενοι. —5. νῆσον δὲ οἵτινες: νῆσον, as strongest security for an αὐτάρκης θέσις (i. 37. 11) and for immunity from attack (ἀληπτόν, i. 37. 20), placed before the rel. Cf. vi. 36. 1. Kr. Spr. 54, 17, 7; Kühn. 606, 6. Cf. δίκας δὲ ὅτι ἐθέλομεν, i. 144. 14. οἵτινες, though hypothetical, has so manifest a reference to the Mytileneans that in l. 8 the neg. is οὐ not μή.—7. ἐν ᾧ καὶ αὐτοί: not entirely dependent, therefore, on Attie protection. ἐν ᾧ, in which case. See on i. 39. 11.— παρασκευῇ: force, as in vi. 31. 6; vii. 36. 3. Lesbian triremes are mentioned c. 4. 6; i. 116. 11; ii. 9. 20; 56. 7.—9. τιμώμενοι: see on c. 9. 12. — ἐς τὰ πρῶτα: imprimis, as c. 56. 22.—10. τί ἄλλο ἤ: as in c. 58. 24; v. 98. 8, with following finite verb. The same elliptical const. as οὐδὲν ἄλλο ἤ, ii. 16. 10. H. 612; Kr. Spr. 62, 3, 7; Kühn. 587, 18.— ἐπανέστησαν μᾶλλον ἢ ἀπέστησαν: rose up against rather than revolted from. For the paronomasia, freq. in Thuc., cf. c. 82. 31, and see on i. 33. 26. Cf. Dion. H. Ant. iii. 8. 2 οὐ μόνον ἀπόστασιν ἐβούλευσαν ἀφ̓ ὑμῶν, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐπανάστασιν, Dio C. lxxi. 24 δημοσία τε ἀπόστασις, μᾶλλον δὲ ἐπανάστασις.— 11. μέν γε: as if the explanation of the ἐπανάστασις also were to follow; but this is omitted since it is clear enough from the context. For the combination μέν γε, see on i. 40. 15.— 12. μετὰ τῶν πολεμιωτάτων στάντες: combining with our worst enemies. Cf. i. 33. 22; vii. 57. 4; 61. 12, and see on c. 11. 18.—13. ἡμᾶς: emphatic position, as in i. 68. 1; 70. 5; v. 82. 23; vii. 78. 26.—14. καθ̓ αὑτούς: of themselves, as in iv. 64. 14, 21, and freq.— κτώμενοι: seeking to acquire, as in ii. 62. 26. Cf. ἐπικτᾶσθαι, i. 144. 2; ii. 65. 24. παράδειγμα: warning example. The sing. as in iv. 92. 18, but the plur. c. 10. 20; 11. 24; vi. 77. 4. It is placed first, as if to be pred. to both οὔτε clauses; but as εὐδαιμονία of course cannot be a warning, an anacoluthon arises. For similar const., cf. c. 96. 11.—16. ὅσοι . . . ἐχειρώθησαν: cf. c. 10. § 4 ff.; i. 98. § 4; 99.—17. παρέσχεν ὄκνον μὴ ἐλθεῖν: for the neg., see on c. 32. 14.— τὰ δεινά: dangers. See on c. 22. 26.—18. ἐλπίσαντες μακρότερα μὲν τῆς δυνάμεως, ἐλάσσω δὲ τῆς βουλήσεως: the antithesis is well chosen, in order to rouse both contempt and bitterness. “Their hopes went indeed far beyond their strength, but not far enough to satisfy their hate.” Cf. Schol. ἤλπισαν, φησίν, ἀποστῆναι ἡμῶν, ὅπερ μεῖζον μέν ἐστι τῆς δυνάμεως αὐτῶν, ἔλαττον δὲ τῆς βουλήσεως αὐτῶν. ἐβούλοντο γὰρ οὐ μόνον ἀποστῆναι ἡμῶν ἀλλὰ δὴ καὶ καθελεῖν τὴν δύναμιν τῆς πόλεως, διὰ τὸ λοιπὸν ἀδεῶς ζῆν. Herbst (Zu Thuk. Erkl. u.s.w. 1892, p. 82) thinks that a contrast is intended between the Mytilenean view of their own power and that of the Athenians, i.e. they expected for themselves more than they could accomplish and from the Athenians less than they (the Mytileneans) could wish, so greatly did they underestimate the strength of the Athenians. —20. ἰσχὺν ἀξιώσαντες. . . προθεῖναι: “having once determined to put might before right.” The clause is all the more effective since a good word (ἀξιώσαντες) is made to serve in a bad cause. ἰσχύς, as i. 76. 15, of brute force. προθεῖναι with acc. and gen. also c. 84. 14; i. 76. 15; Hdt. iii. 53. 16; Soph. O. C. 419.—21. ἐν ᾧ: emphasizes here more sharply than usual the moment, when in the hope of getting the better of the Athenians, now hard pressed by war and pestilence (cf. c. 3. § 1; 13. § 3), they made an unprovoked attack. See on εἴωθε δὲ . . . ἐς ὕβριν τρέπειν: unexpected good fortune is wont to make insolent those cities upon which it has come in the highest degree and in the shortest time. With the sentiment, cf. Liv. xxx. 42. 15 raro simul hominibus bonam fortunam bonamque mentem dari; also Thuc. iv. 17. § 4; Dem. i. 23; Aristid. ii. 57. ἀρποσδόκητος εὐπραξία is subj. of both clauses. For the Mytileneans it consisted in the straits of the Athenians, indicated by ἐν ᾧ . . . περιέσεσθαι. αἷς=ταύτας αἷς, the terminal dat. with ἐλθεῖν, as in c. 70. 2 and often. See on c. 5. 12; i. 13. 12. μάλιστα and δἰ ἐλαχίστου are adv. with ἔλθῃ. Cf. δἰ ὀλίγου, iv. 95. 1; v. 69. 19; vi. 47. 10; vii. 15. 13, and see on ii. 42. 24. ἐς ὕβριν τρέπειν has ταύτας understood as object. Cf. c. 13. 4. See App.—24. τὰ πολλὰ kte(.: the Schol. correctly explains = ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πολύ. The subj. is εὐτυχοῦντα with its modifiers. “And for the most part success that comes to men in accordance with reasonable calculations is safer than that which surpasses expectation, and mankind apparently find it easier to repel adversity, than to maintain prosperity.” εὐτυχοῦντα as in iv. 62. 17; 79. 4. For omission of art., cf. c. 48. 8. GMT. 827. διασῴζεσθαι as in v. 16. 11; 46. 9. χρῆν δὲ . . . τετιμῆσθαι: for the const., see GMT. 415, 419; H. 834, 897.— καὶ πάλαι: iam pridem. Cf. c. 13. 5; 104. 14.—27. μηδὲν διαφέροντας τῶν ἄλλων: pred. to τετιμῆσθαι, without any advantage over others. οὕτω τετιμῆσθαι ὑφ̓ ἡμῶν ὡς οὐδὲν διαφέροντας τῶν ἄλλων, Schol. διαφερόντως, which St. has adopted, is the reading of some of the Mss., and is supported by Thuc.'s usage (i. 38. 10; 138. 11; ii. 40. 11; 51. 2; viii. 68. 17), as well as by the imitation of Dio C. xxxviii. 30. 3 ἢ οὖν ἀπὸ πρώτης ἐχρῆν μηδὲν διαφερόντως ἡμᾶς τῶν ἄλλων ἀνθρώπων ηὐξῆσθαι.— 28. καὶ οὐκ: introduces in parataxis the result of the cond. implied in the preceding clause.— ἐς τόδε: adeo, as in i. 75. 8.— ἐξύβρισαν: also i. 84. 6.—29. πέφυκε γὰρ καὶ ἄλλως kte(.: passes from the present case to a general remark, as in i. 99. 6; viii. 45. 6; Plut. Tim. 52 a. With the sentiment, cf. iv. 61. 19.— τὸ θεραπεῦον, τὸ μὴ ὑπεῖκον: collective neuters with personal force, as ii. 45. 5; iv. 61. 20. Kr. Spr. 43, 4, 17.— 30. ὑπερφρονεῖν: with acc. also vi. 68. 10. Kr. Spr. 47, 23, 1. κολασθέντων: on the form, see App.— καὶ νῦν: even now, opp. to καὶ πάλαι, — καὶ μή: covers both the following clauses.—32. ἡ αἰτία προστεθῇ: for the act. with acc., cf. l. 38; 42. 25; iv. 20. 12.— ἀπολύσητε: for aor. subjv. in prohibition, see GMT. 259; H. 874; Kühn. 397, 3.—33. ἡμῖν γε: i.e. against us at least they were united, even if they were at variance among themselves.— οἷς γ᾽ ἐξῆν: grammatically construed with πάντες, though really only the δῆμος is had in mind here, as well as in the next clause. For const., see on l. 26 above.— 34. τραπομένοις: this reading of a few good Mss., is more appropriate with ἐν τῇ πόλει εἶναι than the vulg. τρεπομένοις. “Who might have turned to us and been now reinstated in their city.” As to this rendering, which is essentially that of Va., see also L. Herbst, Philol. xlii. p. 711.— ἀλλὰ . . . ξυναπέστησαν: but considering the danger with the oligarchs safer (than that with us), they joined them in revolt. Cf. c. 47. 3. Const. βεβαιότερον with κίνδυνον, as v. 108. 2. τῶν τε ξυμμάχων: introduces the new consideration with emphasis. The part. gen. covers not only τοῖς τε ἀναγκασθεῖσιν . . . ἀποστᾶσι, but also τίνα οἴεσθε ὅντινα οὐ. Both ἀναγκασθεῖσιν and ἑκοῦσιν are pred. to ἀποστᾶσι. —38. τίνα . . . ὅντινα οὐ: as in c. 46. 8, this becomes by attraction one word, as it were, in force and const. like οὐδεὶς ὅστις οὐ, c. 81. 24; vii. 87. 14. Cf. Xen. Cyrop. i. 4. 25 οὐδένα ἔφασαν ὅντιν̓ οὐ δακρύοντ̓ ἀποστρέφεσθαι. Kr. Spr. 51, 10, 11; Kühn. 555, 5. After the long protasis, οἴεσθε repeats σκέψασθε of — βραχείᾳ προφάσει: on a trifling pretext, as in i. 141. 4. For the force of βραχεῖα, see on c. 36. 12; i. 14. 11.—39. κατορθώσαντι, σφαλέντι: cf. c. 14. 5, 7; ii. 65. 28, 29; vi. 12. 7, 8.— ἐλευθέρωσις ἢ παθεῖν: for the noun and inf. co-ordinated as subj. of ᾖ, see Kr. Spr. 59, 2, 3. ἡμῖν δέ: what follows, though logically dependent on σκέψασθε, is grammatically independent. — 41. ἀποκεκινδυνεύσεται: pass. prob. only here; in vii. 81. 26 intr. Kr. Spr. 52, 3, 4. Cf. ii. 43. 26 ἡ ἐναντία μετα- βολὴ . . . ἔτι κινδυνεύεται, Dem. xviii. 278 τῶν ὅλων τι κινδυνεύεται τῇ πόλει, xxxiv. 28 τὰ χρήματα ἤδη κινδυνεύεται τῷ δανείσαντι, xix. 285 τὰ μέγιστα κινδυνεύεται τῇ πόλει. For fut. pf. expressing certainty that an action will immediately take place, see GMT. 79; Kr. Spr. 53, 9, 3.—42. τυχόντες: = κατορθώσαντες, as in c. 42. 18; 82. 31; iv. 63. 13; v. 111. 27.—43. τῆς ἔπειτα προσόδου: the future revenue, i.e. that which would have accrued if the state had not been destroyed. Cf. i. 123. 2. τὸ λοιπόν is pleonastie, it is true, but after the inserted rel. clause it is not without force. But see App.— δἰ ἥν: elsewhere ᾗπερ (ᾗ) with ἰσχύειν, as i. 142. 12; ii. 13. 18. It is connected κατὰ ξύνεσιν with τῆς προσόδου without ἔπειτα.—44. στερήσεσθε, ἕξομεν: change of pers., as in v. 9. § 1. Kühn. 371, N. 5.—45. δεῖ: Cobet's conjecture, ἔδει, is unnecessary, since Cleon could hardly mean, either here or c. 40. 39, that their enemies would have to be entirely neglected, but only that conflicts with their ξύμμαχοι would cripple opposition to the νῦν καθεστηκότες ἐχθροί.
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