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As their guilt has been wilfully incurred, do not weakly allow yourselves to be moved by pity, charm of words, or a spirit of fairness to change your decree. They have merited the severest punishment, and this will secure the permanence of your rule; whereas by revoking your decree you would condemn yourselves.

προθεῖναι: proponere, not προσθεῖναι (although in Vat. and other good Mss.); alone appropriate with ἐλπίδα. Cf. c. 52. 18 κατηγορία οὐδεμία προετέθη.—οὔτε λόγῳ πιστὴν οὔτε χρήμασιν ὠνητήν: neither relying on eloquence, nor to be bought with money. Both here and c. 38. § 2, those who would merely show their cleverness are set over against those who are bribed. πιστός in this sense also in Plato Legg. 824 b, and freq. in the poets.—2.

ὡς ξυγγνώμην ἁμαρτεῖν ἀνθρωπίνως λήψονται: that they will be ercused as having erred humanly, i.e. pardonably. Cf. Dem. xix. 238 ξυγγνώμη ἀδελφῷ βοηθεῖν. ξυγγνώμην λήψεσθαι = ξυγγνωσθήσεσθαι, hence the inf. elause, ἁμαρτεῖν ἀνθρωπίνως, giving the ground of the pardon. Cf. Hdt. i. 89. 14 ξυγγνόντες ποιέειν σε δίκαια. Kr. Spr. 61, 7, 5; Kühn. 473, 5. ξυγγνώμη as in c. 44. 6. For its const. with inf., cf. iv. 61. 17; v. 88. 1; Hdt. i. 39. 1. With the sentiment of the passage, cf. c. 45. 7; Xen. Cyrop. vi. i. 37 ξυγγνώμων τῶν ἀνθρωπίνων ἁμαρτημάτων, Dio C. p. 24 τοῖς ἁμαρτάνουσι ξυγγνώμην κατὰ τὸ ἀνθρώπινον.—4. ξύγγνωμον: = ξυγγνώμης ἄξιον (Schol.), as in iv. 98. 19. Cf. Dem. xviii. 274 ἐξήμαρτέ τις ἄκων; ξυγγνώμη ἀντὶ τῆς τιμωρίας τούτῳ, Dion. H. Ant. i. 58 ἅπαν δὲ ξυγγνώμης ἄξιον τὸ ἀκούσιον. On the accent of ξύγγνωμον (not ξυγγνῶμον) after the analogy of κακόδαιμον, see Göttling, Accentlehre, p. 329 f.

καὶ τότε: sc. διεμαχεσάμην. Cf. i. 86. 7; vi. 60. 13.—

διαμάχομαι: with μή and inf. as in c. 42. 7; Xen. Anab. v. 8. 23; Eur. Alc. 694. Cf. also i. 143. 25; v. 41. 14; vii. 63. 1. Kühn. 597, 2 k. τότε refers to what happened in the assembly the day before. Cf. c. 69. 2; i. 101. 8.—

μὴ μεταγνῶναι ὑμᾶς τὰ προδεδογμένα: depends only on νῦν διαμάχομαι, having no reference to the τότε πρῶτον clause. Kr. Spr. 55, 3, 16. μεταγνῶναι means rather unvote than repent. Cf. i. 44. 4. The view of MüllerStrübing (Thuk. Forsch. p. 187 ff.) and others, that τὰ προδεδογμένα refers to a decree adopted before the assembly of the previous day, is inconsistent with τότε πρῶτον, whether the assumed decree were a general measure that was of importance for the question of the treatment of the Mytileneans, or a specific decree referring thereto. For Cleon would hardly have made so covert a reference to such a measure, and such an anticipatory decree would be wholly at variance with c. 35 f.— 6.

τρισὶ τοῖς ἀξυμφορωτάτοις: the order as in i. 74. 3.—7.

ἡδονῇ λόγων: cf. ἀκοῆς ἡδονῇ, c. 38. 31; also i. 84. 9; ii. 37. 12.—

ἐπιεικείᾳ: fairness (Matthew Arnold's ‘sweet reasonableness’), esp. the benevolent treatment by the ἄρχουσα πόλις of her allies, which does not allow her superiority to be felt. Cf. l. 14; 48. 2; also i. 76. 20, τὸ ἐπιεικές and its result.

ἔλεός τε: the first of the τρία τὰ ἀξυμφορώτατα, the other two being οἵ τε τέρποντες (10), καὶ ἐπιείκεια (13). Note the different connexion in i. 74. 4 (τε, καί, καί).—

τοὺς ὁμοίους: Cl., St. and Bl. interpret, those who are like-minded, as in i. 71. 7; but Steup rightly follows Kr. in understanding, those who are placed in like circumstances, i.e. only toward equals, and not subject-allies, is mercy in order. Only this view is compatible with ἐξ ἀνάγκης καθεστῶτας αἰεὶ πολεμίους.— δίκαιος ἀντιδίδοσθαι: for the pers. const. with inf., see GMT. 762; H. 944 a. The unusual inf. pass., as in c. 94. 22; Xen. Cyneg. 3. 3; Plato Legg. 751 b. GMT. 763; H. 952 a.— 9.

ἀντοικτιοῦντας: found only here. —

ἐξ ἀνάγκης: necessarily, as in vi. 44. 5; vii. 27. 17.—11.

ῥήτορες: here, in Cleon's mouth, as well as in the two other passages in Thuc. (vi. 29. 14; viii. 1. 5), used already in its unfavourable secondary meaning to characterize those who make a profession of oratory (cf. τέρποντες λόγῳ) and use it for personal or party purposes.

ἕξουσι καὶ ἐν ἄλλοις ἐλάσσοσιν ἀγῶνα: i.e. the orators who consider political deliberations as an ἀγών (c. 38. § 4) will have an opportunity to display their cleverness in other matters of less importance, which will be no hardship to those who treat every matter ὡς ἐν ἄλλοις μείζοσιν οὐκ ἂν δηλώσαντες τὴν γνώμην (c. 37. 21).— 12.

βραχέα: combines the ideas of short duration and slight enjoyment. For the neut. adj. as cognate acc., see G. 1054; H. 716 b; Kr. Spr. 46, 5, 4. —13.

τὸ παθεῖν εὖ: τὸ χρηματίσασθαι ὑπὸ τῶν Μυτιληναίων, Schol. The same insinuation of bribery as in l. 2 above and c. 38. 12. The phrase is strengthened by its chiastic relation to the preceding.—14.

ἐπιτηδείους: = πιστούς, faithful as allies, as in vi. 46. 8.—15.

ὁμοίως τε καὶ οὐδὲν ἧσσον: on Thiersch's conjecture ὁμοίως for ὁμοίους, see App. With the expression, cf. μέγιστον δὲ καὶ οὐχ ἥκιστα, vii. 44. 32; πλεῖστος φόνος καὶ οὐδενὸς ἐλάσσων, vii. 85. 17.—16.

ὑπολειπομένους: who always remain, chiastically opposed to μέλλοντας.

ἕν τε: the reading of one Ms. (C. acc. to Hude), adopted by St. and Cl. for ἓν δέ of the other Mss., acc. to Thuc.'s constant usage in a resumé. So ξυνελών τε, ii. 41. 1; vi. 80. 14; ἁπλῶς τε, c. 38. 31; 45. 29; 82. 34; τό τε ξύμπαν, c. 92. 17; iv. 63. 9; vii. 77. 33; τό τε ξύμπαν εἰπεῖν, vii. 49. 18; παράπαν τε, vi. 18. 41; παντί τε τρόπῳ, ii. 21. 21; iv. 4. 11. See Haase, Lucubr. p. 75.—18.

τὰ ξύμφορα: sc. ὑμῖν αὐτοῖς. Cf. i. 42. 3.—

τοῖς μὲν οὐ χαριεῖσθε: you will not win their gratitude. Cf. c. 37. 7 οὐκ ἐς τὴν τῶν ξυμμάχων χάριν.—19. δικαιώσεσθε: not found elsewhere in Thuc., who uses only δικαιοῦν = δίκαιον ἡγεῖσθαι. It is chosen here with reference to τὰ δίκαια ἐς Μυτιληναίους ποιήσετε above, do justice to, i.e. punish. It seems to be an Ionic usage. Cf. Hdt. i. 100. 8; iii. 29. 12; v. 92. β 14; Plato Legg. 934 b. See Diener, de Serm. Thuc. p. 30 f. For the mid., cf. κολάζεσθαι, l. 22; σφᾶς αὐτοὺς βεβαιώσασθαι, i. 33. 23.—

εἰ γὰρ οὗτοι ὀρθῶς ἀπέστησαν . . . ἄρχοιτε: for if these had a right to secede, it would follow that your dominion is unjust, i.e. a revocation of the former decree (γνόντες ἄλλως) would be a confession that the Mytilenean revolt was just, and consequently the Athenian rule unjust. For the mixture of the prot. of the simple (not unreal) cond. with an apod. of the ideal, to soften the assertion, see GMT. 503; H. 901 b. Cf. c. 9. 6; i. 121. 16.—20.

οὐ χρεών, οὐ προσῆκον: acc. abs. GMT. 851; H. 973; Kr. Spr. 56, 9, 5. οὐ προσῆκον also iv. 95. 4; vi. 82. 10; 84. 1.

εἰ δὲ δὴ . . . ἀνδραγαθίζεσθαι: not meant, as εἰ γὰρ . . . ἄρχοιτε, to substantiate ὑμᾶς . . . δικαιώσεσθε, but earrying out some such thought, to be supplied, as “which you will certainly not acknowledge.” See App. —

ἀξιοῦτε: are resolved. Cf. ii. 11. 33; 64. 24.—

τοῦτο δρᾶν: sc. ἄρχειν. For this expression referring to some action just deseribed, see on i. 5. 11. —22.

τοι: occurs isolated only twice more in Thuc. (ii. 41. 11; vii. 77. 5), always introducing an emphatic assertion.—

ξυμφόρως: τοῦ ξυμφέροντος ἕνεκα τῇ ἀρχῇ, Schol. Cf. τὰ ξύμφορα, —

κολάζεσθαι: not pass., but as the whole context, esp. παύεσθαι, shows, mid., as δικαιώσεσθε above. Cf. vi. 78. 8; Ar. Vesp. 406, and Steph. Thes. s.v.—

: = εἰ δὲ μή, as in ii. 63. 3, which passage is imitated here both in thought and expression (ἀνδραγαθίζεται).—23.

ἐκ τοῦ ἀκινδύνου: adv. periphrasis, as ἐκ τοῦ εὐθέος, i. 34. 10; ἐκ τοῦ ἀσφαλοῦς, i. 39. 2; ἀπὸ τοῦ προφανοῦς, i. 35. 17; ἀπὸ τοῦ εὐθέος, c. 43. 5.

τῇ τε αὐτῇ ζημίᾳ ἀξιώσατε ἀμύνασθαι: the sentence would properly read εἰκὸς ἦν αὐτοὺς ὑμᾶς ἀμύνασθαι κρατήσαντας ὑμῶν, but the natural order having been interrupted by καὶ μὴ . . . φανῆναι, expressing the neg. side of the thought, the force of τῇ αὐτῇ is left to be inferred from what follows. Schol. ἂν ἐτιμωρήσαντο καὶ αὐτοὶ ὑμᾶς, περιγενόμενοι ὑμῶν. But Steup would understand, “as on the day before,” objecting that the above interpretation is strained, and that one cannot see how Cleon could have represented the course of the victorious Mytileneans toward the Athenians as a ζημία.—ἀναλγητότεροι: elsewhere in prose only in late writers. It means here, like δυσάλγητος, Soph. O. R. 12, without feeling, not sensitive; unfeeling, cruel, in Soph. Aj. 946; Trach. 126; Eur. Hipp. 1386. Cf. ἀναλγήτως, unfeelingly, Soph. Aj. 1333.—25.

οἱ διαφεύγοντες: the pres. partic. here expresses continued action, as in c. 4. 13; ii. 2. 22. It is appos. to ὑμεῖς understood. Kr. Spr. 50, 7, 14.—26.

εἰκὸς ἦν: as c. 10. 20. Without ἄν (as ἐξῆν, i. 37. 21; καλὸν ἧν, i. 38. 10) as apod. to κρατήσαντας (i.e. ἐκράτησαν). See on c. 10. 20. GMT. 420, 421; H. 897.—

κρατήσαντας ὑμῶν: Cleon uses every where in c. 40 the second person in speaking of the Athenians. Cf. c. 39. 2, 44. ἡμῶν, which many editions have, seems to be unsupported by any good Ms.—27.

τροϋπάρξαντας: cf. πρῶτοι τοῦ τοιούτου ὑπάρξαντες, i. 76. 11; τοῖς ὑπάρχουσι προτέροις, ii. 74. 17. The same force as the simple verb ὑπῆρξαν, ii. 67. 29.

μάλιστα δὲ kte(.: whoever without cause have wronged another, follow him up to destroy him utterly, apprchending always danger from the surviving (i.e. not yet completely destroyed) enemy. The thought agrees in the main with the famous words of Tacitus, Agr. 42 proprium humani ingenii est odisse quem laeseris. Cf. Dryden: Forgiveness to the injured does belong, But they ne'er pardon who have done the wrong; and Gladstone, Nineteenth Century, xxv. p. 151, ‘The hatred which nations . . . are apt to feel towards those whom they have injured.’—28.

μὴ ξὺν προφάσει: as is charged against the Mytileneans c. 39. § 1, 2.—

ἐπεξέρχονται καὶ διολλύναι: so with St. for the unintelligible διόλλυνται of the Mss. See Rh. Mus. xv. p. 475. The inf. of purpose as in i. 50. 3; ii. 65. 44. GMT. 770; H. 951.—29.

τὸν κίνδυνον . . . ἐχθροῦ: the gen. with κίνδυνος, as in ii. 63. 5.—30.

γὰρ μὴ ξὺν ἀνάγκῃ . . . ἐχθροῦ: contains at once the ground for the extreme fear and therefore extreme hostility of the Mytileneans, and the justification of the severest punishment by the Athenians. ‘For he who has suffered evil without needful cause is more dangerous, if he shall have escaped, than one who was an enemy on equal terms, i.e. than one who has not suffered more than he has inflicted.’ (Arn.) ἀπὸ τῆς ἴσης as in i. 15. 11.

προδόται γένησθε: see on c. 2. 11.—32.

γενόμενοι ὅτι ἐγγύτατα τῇ γνώμῃ: = ὅτι ἐγγύτατα διανοηθέντες (i. 143. 22); from which ἐνθυμηθέντες must be supplied with ὡς πρὸ παντὸς . . . χειρώσασθαι. Recalling as nearly as possible the feelings (of the moment) of suffering, and how you would then have prized above everything to crush them. Schol. εἰς εὔνοιαν ἐλθόντες ὧν ἐμέλλετε πάσχειν ὑπὸ Λεσβίων. Cf. Aesch. iii. 153 γένεσθε δή μοι μικρὸν χρόνον τὴν διάνοιαν μὴ ἐν τῷ δικαστηρίῳ. πρὸ παντός stronger than πρὸ πολλῶν with the similar expression in i. 33. 8; vi. 10. 16.—34.

ἀνταπόδοτε: here abs., in the same signification as with τὰ ὁμοῖα, c. 66. 8; τὸ ἴσον, i. 43. 5.— —

μαλακισθέντες: as in c. 37. 8; vi. 29. 11.—35.

πρὸς τὸ παρὸν αὐτίκα: the pleonasm is not greater than in ἐν τῷ τότε παρόντι, i. 95. 26; τῶν ἔπειτα μελλόντων, i. 123. 2; ἐν τῷ νῦν παρόντι, Plato Phaedo 67 c. See also on c. 39. 43. For the position, cf. πάλιν ἀποκομιδή, i. 137. 26. πρὸς τὸ παρόν, as in ii. 22. 1. Cf. πρὸς τὰ παρόντα, ii. 3. 15; 6. 3; 59. 10; iv. 80. 8; ἐπὶ τῷ παρόντι, ii. 36. 18; vi. 20. 3.—

τοῦ ἐπικρεμασθέντος ποτὲ δεινοῦ: the danger once hanging over you. Cl. and Kr. conjecture τότε, as antithesis to αὐτίκα. See on i. 101. 8.

τούτους τε καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις: τε καί on account of the antithesis of the pronouns. See on ii. 46. 1. Observe the chiastic order of the sentence.— 37.

τοῖς ἄλλοις . . . ζημιωσόμενον: give to the rest of the allies plain warning that whoever revolts shall be punished with death. ‘The const. of the partic., depending on the phrase σαφὲς παράδειγμα καταστήσατε, seems to be protected by the similar examples, c. 67. 28 ποιήσατε . . . παράδειγμα οὐ λόγων τοὺς ἀγῶνας προθήσοντες, ἀλλ̓ ἔργων, c. 64. 1 δῆλον ἐποιήσατε . . . οὐ μηδίσαντες, Lycurg. 50 φανερὸν πᾶσιν ἐποίησαν οὐκ ἰδίᾳ πολεμοῦντες, where the partic. clauses take the place of the objects.’ St. Cf. also Hdt. vi. 21. 8 Ἀθηναῖοι δῆλον ἐποίησαν ὑπεραχθεσθέντες τῇ Μιλήτου ἁλώσι. The const. is the same as with the simple verb δηλοῦν. GMT. 904, 907; H. 981; Kühn. 482, 2. The dat. with ζημιωσόμενον as in ii. 65. 12. Elsewhere with παράδειγμα, that which is to be proved, or of which an example is to be given, is expressed (if it be not clear from the context, as in c. 10. 20; 11. 24; 39. 14; ii. 37. 2; iv. 92. 18; v. 90. 7; vi. 77. 4) in the gen., as c. 57. 1; i. 2. 20; v. 95. 3.—39.

ἧσσον . . . ξυμμάχοις: cf. c. 39. 45 καὶ ὃν χρόνον τοῖς νῦν καθεστηκόσι δεῖ ἐχθροῖς ἀνθίστασθαι.—τοῖς ὑμετέροις . . . ξυμμάχοις: the speech concludes with a trimeter, as shown by Meineke, Hermes iii. p. 347. Cf. i. 80. 6; iv. 17. 6, and the hexameters ii. 49. 18; vi. 36. 1.

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