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And if Sparta should for the sake of Thebes inflict upon Plataea a cruel punishment, it would be universally regarded as an unnatural deed, and your present reputation among the Hellenes for justice would be gone.

προσσκέψασθε: praeterea considerate, which Meineke (Herm. iii. p. 364) and v. H. (Stud. Thuc. p. 44) conjecture and St. adopts, is preferable here, where the orators pass to a new consideration, to προσκέψασθε of the Mss. Nor is the look into the future, which Cl. considers the main thought here, expressed in (5) ὁρᾶτε ὅπως μὴ οὐκ ἀποδέξωνται and (8) δεινὸν δὲ δόξει, any more than in c. 56. 8 τοῦ μὲν ὀρθοῦ φανεῖσθε οὐκ ἀληθεῖς κριταὶ ὄντες.—παράδειγμα: an example, as ii. 37. 2. See on c. 40. 37.—2.

ἀνδραγαθίας: here in the general sense of uprightness (not bravery, as c. 64. 16; ii. 42. 11; v. 101. 2), and ἀνδρῶν ἀγαθῶν and ἀμείνους follow in the same general signification.—3.

μὴ τὰ εἰκότα: cf. c. 56. 6. The neg. here, as well as in οὐδ̓ ἡμῶν μεμπτῶν below, is out of its regular place, since μή belongs to εἰκότα, οὐδ̓ to μεμπτῶν. Cf. c. 67. 7; i. 5. 5; 78. 1; ii. 67. 34; 102. 22.—

οὐ γὰρ . . . μεμπτῶν: the causal clause, thus placed in parataxis before the main one, is not rare in Thuc. See on i. 31. 7. For the sentiment, cf. Sall. Cat. 51. 12.—

ἀφανῆ: pred. adj. with adv. force, as c. 30. 4.—4.

ἐπαινούμενοι . . . μεμπτῶν: sc. κρινεῖτε τὴν δίκην τήνδε. The antithesis, if strictly carried out, would have been perhaps ἐπιφανεστάτην δὲ ἐπαινούμενοι οὐδὲ ἡμᾶς μεμπτοὺς κρινοῦντες. Against the assumption of an ἀφανὴς δίκη two grounds are advanced, the nature of the judges and that of those to be judged.—

περὶ οὐδ̓ ἡμῶν μεμπτῶν: this order, since in independent const. the sent. would have been οὐδ̓ ἡμεῖς μεμπτοί ἐσμεν. As to resemblances here and elsewhere in this and the following chapter to expressions in the Palamedes (§ 35 f.) attributed to Gorgias, see Maass, Herm. xxii. p. 580 f.; also Scheel, de Gorg. discipl. vestigiis, 1890, p. 55 ff.—5.

οὐκ ἀποδέξωνται: ‘litotes,’ for μέμφωνται, as vii. 48. 18. With dependent inf., as δέχεσθαι, c. 53. 4.—6.

αὐτούς: for ὑμᾶς αὐτούς. Cf. c. 54. 9.—

ἀπρεπές τι: cf. c. 67. 16.—

ἐπιγνῶναι: seems to have reference to the preliminary decision made at the surrender of the city, decide further or afterwards. Cf. i. 70. 8; ii. 65. 48. But as it is used of judicial decision in Dion. H. Ant. xi. 52 ἣν αὐτοὶ μεθ̓ ὅρκου δικάσαντες ἐτέρων ἐπέγνωσαν εἶναι (cf. also C. I. G. ii. 1845, l. 71 f. περὶ δὲ τοῦ ἀδυνάτου βουλὰ καὶ ἁλία ἐπιγιγνωσκέτω), this may be the meaning here.—

οὐδέ: sc. ἀποδέξωνται.—7. ἱεροῖς τοῖς κοινοῖς: order, as in c. 54. 14; 56. 3. As in v. 18. 3, the temples at Olympia and Delphi are esp. meant.

Πλάταιαν Λακεδαιμονίους πορθῆσαι: that Lacedaemonians lay waste Plataea. The use of the proper name instead of ὑμᾶς emphasizes the unnaturalness (δεινόν) of the deed, since the mind recurs at once to the Spartan claim to be the liberators of Greece (see on c. 13. 35), as well as to the honour they had once paid to Plataea. So in l. 12 the mere word Θηβαίους recalls their betrayal of the Greek cause in the Persian wars (cf. Hdt. vii. 132. 4).—9.

καὶ kte(.: in the double clause introduced by καί as a further element of the δεινόν, the former (τοὺς μὲν . . . τὴν πόλιν), though in parataxis, is subord. to the latter (ὑμᾶς δὲ . . . ἐξαλεῖψαι). Cf. i. 28. 15. —10.

τὸν τρίποδα τὸν ἐν Δελφοῖς: cf. i. 132. 10 τὸν τρίποδά ποτε τὸν ἐν Δελφοῖς, ὃν ἀνέθεσαν οἱ Ἕλληνες ἀπὸ τῶν Μήδων ἀκροθίνιον, Hdt. ix. 81. 3 τρίπους χρύσεος ἀνετέθη ἐπὶ τοῦ τρικαρήνου ὄφιος τοῦ χαλκέου ἐπεστεὼς ἄγχιστα τοῦ βωμοῦ. The gold tripod was carried off by the Phocians in the sacred war (Paus. x. 13. 5). The bronze column of three intertwined snakes, which was removed by Constantine to Byzantium and placed in the hippodrome, the modern Atmeidan (Gibbon, chap. 17, note 48), was brought to light in 1856. It bears the names of all the Greek states which took part in the Persian war. —11.

παντὸς τοῦ Ἑλληνικοῦ: sc. ἔθνους, as in c. 82. 3. Cf. i. 1. 6; 6. 23.—

πανοικεσίᾳ: cf. ii. 16. 4; Dio C. xli. 7. For the form, see St. Qu. Gr.^{2} p. 46. The word is generally considered to mean here, house and all, ‘root and branch’; but Steup, who renders ‘with all its houses,’ maintains that both this expression and Πλάταιαν Λακεδαιμονίους πορθῆσαι refer to the fate of the city (cf. 68. 19), not of its inhabitants, since the women, children, old people, and other non-combatants, besides nearly half of the original defenders, were in Athens (cf. 24. § 2; ii. 6. 18; 72. 17; 78. § 3).—12.

διὰ Θηβαίους: cf. δἰ αὐτούς, c. 56. 6.—

ἐξαλεῖψαι: to blot out, forms with ἐκ παντὸς τοῦ Ἑλληνικοῦ a striking antithesis to ἀναγράψαι ἐς τὸν τρίποδα. There is the same antithesis in the examples compared by Bl., Ar. Pax 1181 τοὺς μὲν ἐγγράφοντας ἡμῶν, τοὺς δ᾽ ἐξαλείφοντας, Eur. Pel. (frg. 4) ὅν γ᾽ ἐξαλείφει ῥᾷον, γράφει, θεός. The same literal and fig. use obtains in ἐξαλείφειν as in delere. In the fig. sense as here used, it seems to be mainly Tragic and Ionic. Cf. Aesch. Choeph. 503; Sept. 15; Eur. Hec. 590; Hel. 262; Hipp. 1241; I. T. 698; Hdt. vii. 220. 10; Plato Theaet. 187 b, Plut. de Fort. 4, and Aristides's imitation (ii. 857), ἐξαλεῖψαι Λακεδαιμονίους ἐκ τῆς Ἑλλάδος.

ἐς τοῦτο ξυμφορᾶς: cf. ἐς τοῦτο ἀνάγκης, i. 49. 31; Plato Theaet. 170 d; ἐς τοῦτο δυστυχίας, vii. 86. 25; ἐν τούτῳ παρασκευῆς, ii. 18. 1; εἰς τοῦθ̓ ὕβρεως, Dem. iv. 34; xxii. 16. G. 1088; H. 730 c.—14.

ἀπωλλύμεθα: Steup renders were ruined, since the reference is to the burning of their city by Xerxes (Hdt. viii. 50). Even with this reference, however, the rendering were all but ruined is admissible. GMT. 38.—

καὶ νῦν kte(.: Steup explains that καί co-ordinates ἀπωλλύμεθα with both the following clauses, and that νῦν ἐν ὑμῖν does not refer to the present trial, but is more general. But surely the evident reference in c. 67. 27 to this very passage shows that the present case is meant. —

ἐν ὑμῖν: before you (as judges). For the prep., see on c. 53. 3.—

Θηβαίων: the mere name here implies τῶν ἐχθίστων πάντων. See on — 15.

ἡσσώμεθα: used in a forensic sense.—

δύο ἀγῶνας τοὺς μεγίστους: for the order, see on c. 42. 4.—16.

τότε μέν: i.e. before we decided to surrender. Cf. c. 52. § 1, 3; 59. 20. τότε is often thus used of a time assumed as well known. Cf. c. 69. 2; i. 101. 8; vii. 31. 12.—

εἰ μὴ παρέδομεν: nisi tradidissemus, the apod. being ἀγῶνας ὑπέστημεν (=ἐκινδυνεύσαμεν) διαφθαρῆναι. GMT. 427 a. Cf. c. 74. 11.—17.

θανάτου κρίνεσθαι: to be tried on a capital charge. For the gen., see G. 1133; H. 745 b; Kr. Spr. 47, 22, 1; Kühn. 419, N. 11. Cf. Xen. Cyrop. i. 2. 14 θανάτου οὗτοι κρίνουσιν, Hdt. vi. 136. 4 θανάτου ὑπαγαγὼν ὑπὸ τὸν δῆμον Μιλτιάδεα ἐδίωκε τῆς Ἀθηναίων ἀπάτης εἵνεκεν. Steup thinks that δίκῃ, which is found in all the best Mss. except Vat., should be inserted after θανάτου. Cf. δίκῃ κρίνεσθαι, i. 39. 1; iv. 122. 16, and θανάτου δίκην ἀπολογησάμενος, viii. 68. 16.

περιεώσμεθα ἐκ πάντων: we have been spurned by all, lit. thrust out from all. Cf. c. 67. 27; Arist. Pol. 1304 a, 1306 a. Note the wonderful pathos of the sent., brought out esp. by the antithesis Πλαταιεῖς . . . Ἕλληνας (cf. c. 59. 25). See on l. 8 and 14.—18.

παρὰ δύναμιν: cf. c. 54. 17.—19.

ἐρῆμοι καὶ ἀτιμωρητοί: deserted and unaided (cf. τιμωρία, c. 20. 4), pred. of effect after περιεώσμεθα. Cf. i. 90. 20; ii. 75. 22; vii. 4. 11; 29. 17.—

τῶν τότε . . . οὐδείς: i.e. none of the other members of the alliance formed at the time of the Persian war.—20.

οὐδείς, ὑμεῖς τε kte(.: the chiastic order produces a fine effect, as also the antithesis μόνη ἐλπίς, δέδιμεν.— μόνη ἐλπίς: cf. μεγίστη ἐλπίς, Luc. Piscat. 3; unica spes, Liv. xxi. 11; Curt. iii. 8. 1.—21.

οὐ βέβαιοι: not to be depended on, i.e. not faithful to the old alliance and its consequences, μὴ οὐ βέβαιον τὴν χάριν τῆς ἀρετῆς ἔχητε. Cf. c. 56. 26.

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