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The Lacedaemonians, for the protection of the Trachinians and Dorians, re-found the Trachinian Heraclea in the territory of Malis.

τὸν χρόνον τοῦτον: as viii. 78. 1. Cl. wrote, with Vat., τοῦτον τὸν χρόνον (cf. viii. 63. 9). The episode in this and the following chapter, which interrupts the narrative begun at c. 91, is inserted here because the re-settlement of Heraclea occurred without doubt immediately after the withdrawal of Nicias from the Locrian coast.—2.

τὴν ἐν Τραχινίοις ἀποικίαν καθίσταντο: Τραχινίοις seems to be the correct form. Cf. τὰς ἐν Ηαρρασίοις πόλεις, v. 33. 11; ἐν Βοιωτοῖς or ἐν τοῖς Βοιωτοῖς, c. 87. 10; i. 107. 18; iv. 89. 3; 108. 24; ἐν Χαλκιδεῦσιν, i. 65. 9; ii. 101. 25. Most, and nearly all good, Mss. have Τραχινίαις, which Bernhardy (Syntax, p. 64) considers a secondary form of Τραχίς, and Cl. as a local name borrowed from the Τραχίνιαι πέτραι (“precipitate cliffs”), at whose foot the old Trachis lay (see Hdt. vii. 198. 7; Bursian i. p. 94). But neither view is probable. The reading of Laur., Τραχινίᾳ, would be acceptable in itself (cf. Diod. xv. 57. 2); only it would be difficult to explain how the vulg. originated from it. Against the conjectures Τραχινίᾳ ἐς and Τραχῖνι ἐς, Pp. rightly objects that one would expect as obj. of ἐς ἀποικίαν καθίσταντο, not Ἡράκλειαν, but Τραχῖνα, the name of the old city, as well as of the district. The fact that all the Mss. agree in ἐν Τραχῖνι in the four other passages where the name of the city occurs (Ἡράκλεια ἐν Τραχῖνι, c. 100. 8; iv. 78. 3; v. 12. 4; Ἡρακλεῶται οἱ ἐν Τραχῖνι, v. 51. 1), does not exclude the assumption here of a slightly different designation of the city.—

ἀποικίαν καθίσταντο: established as their colony. Cf. the pass. καθίστασθαι, l. 14; 93. 3; v. 51. 6. On the significance of the whole enterprise, see Curtius, Hist. of Greece, iii. p. 135.—

καθίσταντο: the intro ductory impf. of the whole; the details follow, from § 5 on, in aors. See on c. 107. 15.—

ἀπὸ τοιᾶσδε: the following clause, as usual in Thuc., is without γάρ. See on i. 89. 2.

Μηλιῆς οἱ ξύμπαντες kte(.: of the Malians all together there are three parts. Cf. Caes. B. G. i. 1. 1. The natural position of μέν would be after Μηλιῆς.—4. Ἱερῆς: both name and place uncertain. See Bursian i. p. 95 f. Steph. Byz. mentions Ἰρά, with the gentile neun Ἰριεύς, as a πόλις Μαλιέων.—5. Οἰταίων: here, l. 10, and viii. 3. 4, as well as Hdt. vii. 217. 4; Xen. Hell. i. 2. 18, etc., mentioned as an independent mountain tribe. See Niebuhr, Vortr. ü. A. L. u. V.-K. p. 173, and Weil, Hermes vii. p. 380 ff. —

τὸ πρῶτον μελλήσαντες: having been at first about—.—6.

προσθεῖναι σφᾶς αὐτούς: with the dat. also viii. 46. 29; 50. 16.—8.

Τεισαμενόν: not Τισαμενόν of the Mss., acc. to the constant usage of inscriptions. See St. Qu. Gr.^{2} p. 38; Meisterhans,^{2} p. 41. On the accent, see Goettling, p. 199.

Δωριῆς: applied to both district and inhabitants; hence the appos. μητρόπολις, as in i. 107. 4. Cf. Hdt. viii. 31. 7. μητρόπολις τῶν Λακεδαιμονίων distinguishes the Dorians here meant from the Δωριῆς Καρσὶ πρόσοικοι (ii. 9. 16), and from the Dorians as a race.

γνώμην εἶχον: determined, with the inf., as in c. 31. 11; ii. 86. 17, 19; iv. 125. 20; viii. 44. 2.—13.

καὶ ἅμα . . . καθίστασθαι: and at the same time the city seemed to be conveniently situated for the war against Athens. —

τοῦ πρὸς Ἀθηναίους πολέμου: governed by καλῶς καθίστασθαι. Cf. i. 36. 11; 75. 3. See on 17 below. —14.

πόλις: i.e. the colony to be planted; hence the inf. pres. pass., as in c. 93. 3. Cf. also v. 51. 5 εὐθὺς καθισταμένῃ τῇ πόλει.—15. ἐπί τε γὰρ . . . χρησίμως ἕξειν: the two reasons explanatory of τοῦ πρὸς Ἀθηναίους καλῶς καθίστασθαι, co-ordinated by τε, τε, to which is added, by way of summing up, τό τε ξύμπαν . . . κτίζειν.—ἐπὶ τῇ Εὐβοίᾳ: against Euboea. For the force of the prep., see on c. 13. 18. Cf. c. 93. 2, 7; v. 51. 4.—16.

ὥστε . . . γίγνεσθαι: cf. c. 93. 3.—

τῆς ἐπὶ Θρᾴκης παρόδου: const. with χρησίμως ἕξειν. G. 1092, H. 757 a; Kühn. 419, 5. See on i. 22. 13. πάροδος, the march along the coast, as iv. 82. 3. Cf. iv. 78. § 1; v. 12. § 1. The minds of the Lacedaemonians were already turned, for Athens's hurt, toward Thrace. Cf. iv. 78 ff.—17.

τό τε ξύμπαν: see on c. 40. 16.—18.

ὥρμηντο: were eager. Cf. ii. 59. 6; iv. 27. 21; 29. 8; v. 29. 21; vi. 6. 3; viii. 73. 15.

ἐν Δελφοῖς: as to the influence of the Delphic oracle on Hellenic colonization, see Curtius, Hist. of Greece, ii. p. 37 ff.—19.

κελεύοντος: sc. αὐτοῦ. The subj. is not expressed, as in viii. 6. 23. See on i. 2. 8. Jow. calls attention to the fact that ‘in this instance the god is stated to give his sanction to an enterprise which ends in complete failure.’—

τοὺς οἰκήτορας αὑτῶν τε καὶ τῶν περιοίκων: the settlers who belonged to themselves and to the Perioeci. Cf. c. 93. 12 οἱ ἄρχοντες αὐτῶν τῶν Λακεδαιμονίων, and c. 109. 12 μετὰ τῶν ξυστρατήγων Ἀκαρνάνων.—20. τῶν περιοίκων: i.e. the old inhabitants, chiefly of Achaean stock, who had been reduced to a condition of dependence (not slavery) by the Dorians. See Müller, Dor. Book III. p. 16 ff. Cf. i. 101. 6.—21.

τὸν βουλόμενον ἐκέλευον ἕπεσθαι: cf. i. 26. 3.—

πλὴν Ἰώνων καὶ Ἀχαιῶν: the Ionians were excepted on account of the difference of race, but the Achaeans, in spite of their federal relations (see on ii. 9. 7), from political aversion. See Curtius, Pelop. i. p. 415. The same will apply also to the ἄλλα ἔθνη that are not named.—22.

ἔστιν ὧν: G. 1029; H. 998. Cf. vi. 88. 34; vii. 11. 7.—

ἐθνῶν: used even of small states, but always with regard to race individuality. Cf. vi. 6. 1; vii. 58. 8. In Xen. Hell. i. 2. 18 those inhabitants of the new city who had previously occupied the district are called Ἀχαιοί in contrast with the ἔποικοι.—τρεῖς: the number three, as often in important undertakings of the Lacedaemonians, c. 100. 3; iv. 132. 13; v. 12. 2. —23.

Ἀλκίδας: without doubt the nauarch already mentioned, c. 16, 26, 31, 76, 80. § 2.

καταστάντες: having established themselves, abs. with ἐτείχισαν τὴν πόλιν, as with ἐμάχοντο, i. 49. 10; with ἐπολέμουν, i. 59. 7; v. 4. 15. See on c. 86. 19.—

ἐκ καινῆς: anew. Cf. ἐκ νέης, Hdt. i. 60. 6. For similar ellipses, see on i. 14. 15. Kr. Spr. 43, 3, 8. The new town was built on the site of the old. Cf. Strabo ix. 4. 13 Ἡράκλεια Τραχὶν καλουμένη πρότερον, Λακεδαιμονίων κτίσμα. Acc. to tradition, Trachis had been founded by Heracles, hence the new name.—25.

ἀπέχουσα: the partic. construed with the rel., rather than with the main clause. —27.

εἶρξαν τὸ κατὰ Θερμοπύλας: they closed the side toward (the approach from) Thermopylae, i.e. they repaired the old fortifications, which, acc. to Hdt. vii. 176. 19 ff., the Phocians had built as a protection against the Thessalians, and which Leonidas used in his struggle with the Persians (Hdt. vii. 208, 223, 225). εἴργειν, which usually has a personal obj. in Thuc., is here construed as in c. 18. 21; viii. 40. 6; Hom. η 88. τὸ κατὰ Θερμοπύλας as τὸ ἐκ τῆς ἠπείρου, c. 51. 13. See App.—28.

εὐφύλακτα: cf. viii. 55. 8 εὐφυλακτότερα. For the use of the neut. pl. of the adj., see on c. 16. 10; i. 7. 2.

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