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καὶ μιᾷ γε πόλει κ.τ.λ. καὶ is corrective, ‘and indeed . . .,’ ‘nay.’ The statement should perhaps be taken relatively, i e. most slaves in proportion to the population. Grote refers to Athenaeus vi. 265, where Theopompus (circ. 333 B.C.) is quoted as saying Χῖοι πρῶτοι τῶν Ἑλλήνων μετὰ Θετταλοὺς καὶ Λακεδαιμονίους ἐχρήσαντο δούλοις, with the difference that Χῖοι βαρβάρους κέκτηνται τοὺς οἰκέτας καὶ τιμὴν αὐτῶν καταβάλλοντες.

χαλεπωτέρως κολαζόμενοι ‘being punished more severely.’ Cf. iii. 46, χαλεπῶς τιμωρεῖσθαι. χαλεπώτερον would suggest ‘with more difficulty.’

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