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ὄντων . . . ἐν κατασκευῇ These words are to be joined, the rest being translated ‘just as if they were beginning.’ Cf. c. 14, § 3, ἐν τειχισμῷ τε πάντες ἦσαν καὶ παρασκευῇ πολέμου, and ii. 80, τὸ ναυτικὸν ἐν παρασκευῇ ἦν. κατασκευὴ differs from παρασκευὴ merely as ‘laying a groundwork’ from ‘getting ready.’ Answering to the use here we have ii. 78, τοιαύτη μὲν ἡ Πλαταιῶν πολιορκία κατεσκευάσθη; ii. 85, ἄλλην ναυμαχίαν βελτίω κατασκευάζεσθαι. ἀποστάσεως τῶν Ἀθηναίων Elsewhere the genitive with this noun appears to be always subjective. Here it follows the verbal construction of ἀφίστασθαί τινος (c. 2, § 2); v. 81, μετὰ τὴν τῶν Ἀργείων ἀπόστασιν ἐκ τῆς ξυμμαχίας. Σθενελᾴδου see footnote. There is an ephor named Σθενελᾴδας in i. 85. ὡς ἐς τὴν Εὔβοιαν. ὡς gives Agis' intention as represented to the Spartans. ἄρχοντας is proleptic. τῶν νεοδαμώδων ‘the newly enfranchised’ (δᾶμος). This was the class between Helots and Perioeci, though with certain rights not possessed even by the latter. Cf. vii. 58, νεοδαμώδεις τοὺς ἄλλους καὶ Εἵλωτας . . . δύναται δὲ τὸ νεοδαμῶδες ἐλεύθερον ἤδη εἶναι, and v. 34.
τῶν Βοιωτῶν as Aeolian ξυγγενεῖς (iii. 2) of the Lesbians. Inf. c. 100, § 3, Ἀναξάνδρου Θηβαίου κατὰ τὸ ξυγγενὲς ἡγουμένου (sc. Μηθυμναίων). παρεσκεύαζε The inf. παρασκευάζειν would have been expected. For a similar combination cf. v. 14, ξυνέβη ὥστε πολέμου μὲν μηδὲν ἔτι ἅψασθαι μηδετέρους, πρὸς δὲ τὴν εἰρήνην μᾶλλον τὴν γνώμην εἶχον (P-S). Ἀλκαμένη τε . . . The clause with καὶ would naturally be e.g καὶ δέκα ναῦς ὑπισχνούμενος ὥσπερ καὶ οἱ Βοιωτοί. But the antithesis ships) (Alcamenes is otherwise expressed. 15 ἁρμοστὴν. Harmosts were sent by Sparta not only to subject states, but also to confederate cities. In Xen. Anab. v. 5, 19, the word is used without reference to Lacedaemon in the general sense praefectus.
πόλεως i.e. without formal public sanction (πόλις =populus). ξυναγείρειν sc. στρατιὰν εἴ τινα ἐβούλετο. αὐτοῦ An emphatic ἐκείνου might have been looked for: ‘they obeyed him more than . . .’ From position and antithesis, however, αὐτοῦ gets an implication of the sense αὐτοῦ μόνου.
Χῖοι i.e. the oligarchical party in Chios acting without the knowledge of the democratic body. Cf. c. 9, § 3. Ἐρυθραῖοι who had a geographical and dialectical affinity with the Chians; Herod. i. 142, Χῖοι μέν νυν καὶ Ἐρυθραῖοι κατὰ τὠυτὸ διαλέγονται. Δαρείῳ Darius II. (Ochus or Nothus), illegitimate son of Artaxerxes I., reigned B.C. 424-405. Tissaphernes had quelled the rebellion of Pissuthnes in B.C. 414, and succeeded him in the satrapy. τῶν κάτω, neuter: ‘of lower Asia,’ i.e. the coastward ‘parts.’ Cf. Herod. i. 177, τὰ μέν νυν κάτω τῆς Ἀσίης Ἅρπαγος ἀνάστατα ἐποίεε, τὰ δὲ ἄνω αὐτῆς αὐτὸς Κῦρος. Herodotus makes ἡ ἄνω Ἀσίη the part E. of the Halys. τὰ κάτω here does not mean all W. of the Halys, the parts about the Hellespont being in the hands of Pharnabazus. See Arnold's note. From c. 108 it appears that Tissaphernes' satrapy included territories as far north as Antandrus and Atramyttium. Of Cyrus, who succeeded Tissaphernes, we read (Xen. Hell. i. 4, 3), Κῦρος, ἄρξων πάντων τῶν ἐπὶ θαλάττῃ . . . ἐπιστολὴν ἔφεπε τοῖς κάτω πᾶσι . . . ἐν ᾗ ἐνῆν καὶ τάδε: Καταπέμπω Κῦρον κάρανον τῶν εἰς Καστωλὸν ἀθροιζομένων. For this use of κάτω in Thuc. cf. i. 7; ὅσοι ὄντες οὐ θαλάσσιοι κάτω ᾤκουν, i. 120; and ἄνω, ii. 83.
πεπραγμένος, ἀπῃτημένος. Schol. ‘The king had quite lately been demanding of him,’ Jowett. More probably the king had actually made him pay it. There is no need to call this a passive of the middle πράσσεσθαι rather than of the act. πράσσειν. The pass. also in Plat. Leg. 921 C, διπλοῦν πραττέσθω. τοὺς . . . φόρους, οὓς . . . History is obscure as to the relations of these Hellenic states with the Persians on the one hand and the Athenians on the other. It is at least clear that the Persian king had a nominal claim to tribute from certain cities in Ionia, and that he looked to his subordinates to exact it. In Herod. vi. 42, the Ionian cities which had been reduced by the Persians after the Ionic revolt are said to be paying a tribute in the time of the writer. ἐπωφείλησεν ‘he had fallen into arrears,’ not ‘still owed’ as Jowett renders. The aorist of a single occurrence antecedent to ἐτύγχανε πεπραγμένος. We should use the pluperfect (Goodwin, M. and T. § 58). Ἀμόργην For his subsequent history v. c. 28. Concerning Pissuthnes cf. i. 115, Πισσούθνῃ τῷ Ὑστάσπου, ὃς εἶχε Σάρδεις τότε (B.C. 440), and iii. 31. He had surrendered under a promise and been treacherously put to death. † τὸν Πισσούθνου υἱὸν νόθον. No adequate defence is offered for this position of article and epithetic adjective. There seems no ground for taking υἱὸν νόθον as a compound noun= ‘bastard.’ The usual order is νόθος υἱός, cf. c. 28, § 3, Πισσούθνου νόθον υἱόν and νόθον may either be a gloss or may have been an interlinear correction which was subsequently admitted into the text at the wrong place. Thus from ΠΙCCΟΥΘΝΟΥΝΟΘ*<*>υΙ<*> (Πισσούθνου νόθον υἱὸν) ΝΟΘ<*> may have fallen out, have been replaced between the lines, and copied by error after instead of before υἱὸν. The present position of the adjective cannot be defended by quoting similar positions of a participle, e g. vii. 23, αἱ πρὸ τοῦ στόματος νῆες ναυμαχοῦσαι, etc. That position of participle was recognised outside Thucydides, e.g. Dem. 269 (126), αἱ ὑπὸ τούτου βλασφημίαι εἰρημέναι. In Aeschin. De Fals. Leg. § 132 (301), τὰ τῶν παρόδων τῶν εἰς Πύλας χωρία κύρια, a transposition should probably be made. On τὸν ἑαυτοῦ στρατὸν πεζὸν of Vat. inf. c. 23, § 5, see critical note. As Pissuthnes has been mentioned before and Amorges not, the easiest correction seems to be τοῦ for τὸν. ἀποκτενεῖν the future, seems a necessary correction for the ἀποκτείνειν or ἀποκτεῖναι of MSS. That ἀποκτεῖναι should follow ἐνόμιζε in a future sense, though ποήσειν has preceded, might perhaps be allowed to Thucydides, if we supposed him to have forgotten the precise verb with which he began, and if no infinitive had come in since ποήσειν. But ἄξειν so immediately precedes and proves his consciousness of ἐνόμιζε, that the combination ἄξειν ἢ ἀποκτεῖναι seems out of the question. In iv. 28 ἣ ἄξειν ζῶντας ἢ αὐτοῦ ἀποκτενεῖν is given without variant. On the question of the aorist in such sentences see Int. § 2 (iii.), and Goodwin, M. and T § 127. Some ‘exceeding bold’ scholars would regularly substitute the future. See Shilleto's doubts on ii. 3, ἐνόμισαν . . . κρατῆσαι (where all MSS. agree). In v. 22, οὐκ ἔφασαν δέξασθαι, there is no variant.
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