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Χῖοι i.e. the oligarchical party in Chios acting without the knowledge of the democratic body. Cf. c. 9, § 3.

Ἐρυθραῖοι who had a geographical and dialectical affinity with the Chians; Herod. i. 142, Χῖοι μέν νυν καὶ Ἐρυθραῖοι κατὰ τὠυτὸ διαλέγονται.

Δαρείῳ Darius II. (Ochus or Nothus), illegitimate son of Artaxerxes I., reigned B.C. 424-405. Tissaphernes had quelled the rebellion of Pissuthnes in B.C. 414, and succeeded him in the satrapy.

τῶν κάτω, neuter: ‘of lower Asia,’ i.e. the coastward ‘parts.’ Cf. Herod. i. 177, τὰ μέν νυν κάτω τῆς Ἀσίης Ἅρπαγος ἀνάστατα ἐποίεε, τὰ δὲ ἄνω αὐτῆς αὐτὸς Κῦρος. Herodotus makes ἄνω Ἀσίη the part E. of the Halys. τὰ κάτω here does not mean all W. of the Halys, the parts about the Hellespont being in the hands of Pharnabazus. See Arnold's note. From c. 108 it appears that Tissaphernes' satrapy included territories as far north as Antandrus and Atramyttium. Of Cyrus, who succeeded Tissaphernes, we read (Xen. Hell. i. 4, 3), Κῦρος, ἄρξων πάντων τῶν ἐπὶ θαλάττῃ . . . ἐπιστολὴν ἔφεπε τοῖς κάτω πᾶσι . . . ἐν ἐνῆν καὶ τάδε: Καταπέμπω Κῦρον κάρανον τῶν εἰς Καστωλὸν ἀθροιζομένων. For this use of κάτω in Thuc. cf. i. 7; ὅσοι ὄντες οὐ θαλάσσιοι κάτω ᾤκουν, i. 120; and ἄνω, ii. 83.

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