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ὡς μετέχοντά τινα accus. absol. with ὡς. Cf. i. 134, ὡς ἄγος αὐτοῖς ὄν; vi. 24, ὡς οὐδὲν ἂν σφαλεῖσαν μεγάλην δύναμιν; vii. 25, ὡς διαπεπολεμησόμενον; Soph. O. T. 100; Jelf, § 703.

οὗτοι the unexpected adherents of the league.

βέβαιον τὴν ἀπιστίαν τῷ δήμῳ πρὸς ἑαυτὸν καταστήσαντες ‘by chuching the peoples distrust towards itself.’ Arnold remarks that the sentence shows a lack of finish in ἄπιστον and ἀπιστίαν. Stahl would eject καὶ τὸ ἄπιστον . . . ἐπόησαν. It would also be easy to regard βέβαιον . . . καταστήσαντες as an interpolation of some commentator who thought πλεῖστα . . . ὠφέλησαν obscure. The trend of the passage is thus: the commons are suspicious of one another; the reason is explained in ἐνῆσαν γὰρ κ.τ.λ., because there were people in the league whom one would never have thought capable of favouring oligarchy. These persons, once thought so sure, naturally made men suspicious of the general run of people (πρὸς τοὺς πολλοὺς), whose leanings were not so well known or so much relied on. τῶν ὀλίγων next comes with antithesis to τοὺς πολλοὺς, at least in sound: ‘and they were of great service in securing the safety of the few.’ But instead of merely adding the word ‘thereby’ or ‘accordingly,’ he explains again how they were of such service, viz. ‘by making a settled matter of the distrustfulness of the demos towards itself.’ This could have been expressed by e.g. καὶ οὕτω πλεῖστα κ τ.λ. or καὶ διὰ ταῦτα πλεῖστα κ.τ.λ. The only palliation, but a considerable one, of the tautology lies in the sense of the word δήμῳ, which must be distinguished here from τοῖς πολλοῖς. It is the assembly or people viewed politically which was prevented from making any stand or taking any action. Reduced to its lowest terms the sentence = ‘by making men generally distrust each other, they assisted the safety of the oligarchs, because they secured inertness on the part of the democratic body politic.’ It would be easy to suggest ἀνελπιστίαν if any change were really necessary.

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