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Ὑπέρβολόν τε, answered by τοῖς τε πλέοσιν κ.τ.λ. The clause καὶ ἄλλα . . . τοιαῦτα ξυνέπραξαν, which might seem to answer to τε, is only an amplification of the first member. The Samians first kill Hyperbolus and join the Athenians in other deeds of violence: second, they prepare to attack the popular party.

Ὑπέρβολον the famous demagogue, a λυχνοπώλης (Ar. Eq. 739) and butt of Aristophanes (Ach. 846, Eq. 1304, Vesp. 1007, Nub. 550-560, Pac. 681, Thesm. 839, etc.), as also of Cratinus, Eupolis and Plato Comicus. Aristophanes (Eq. 1304) also calls him μοχθηρός. Cf. Plut. Nic. 11, διὰ μοχθηρίαν. His political influence is attested from B.C. 425. He was probably ostracised in B.C. 416. Plutarch (Aristid. 7, Nic. 11, Alcib. 13) says that he brought ostracism on himself in attempting to bring it on Nicias or Alcibiades.

οὐ διὰ δυνάμεως καὶ ἀξιώματος φόβον on the purpose of ostracism cf. Aristot. Pol. v. 2, 4, . . . δι᾽ ὑπεροχὴν δὲ, ὅταν τις τῇ δυνάμει μείζων κατὰ τὴν πόλιν καὶ τὴν δύναμιν τοῦ πολιτεύματος: γίνεσθαι γὰρ εἴωθεν ἐκ τῶν τοιούτων μοναρχία δυναστεία: διὸ ἐνιαχοῦ εἰώθασιν ὀστρακίζειν, οἶον ἐν Ἄργει καὶ Ἀθήνησιν. Grote, H. G. pt. ii e. xxxi. Athens had ostracised Themistocles (i. 135), Aristides, Thucydides son of Melesias, and Cimon. The case of Hyperbolus brought the institution into contempt. Plutarch (Nic. 11) quotes Plato Comicus for the lines— καίτοι πέπραχε (sc. Ὑπέρβολος) τῶν τρόπων μὲν ἄξια, αὐτοῦ δὲ καὶ τῶν στιγμάτων ἀνάξια: οὐ γὰρ τοιούτων εἵνεκ᾽ ὄστραχ᾽ ηὑρέθη. Plut. adds καὶ τὸ πέρας οὐδεὶς ἔτι τὸ παράπαν ἐξωστρακίσθη μετὰ Ὑπέρβολον.

μετὰ Χαρμίνου τε . . . καί τινων κ.τ.λ. i.e. aided and abetted by them.

ἑνὸς τῶν στρατηγῶν v. c. 30, § 1; c. 41, § 3; c. 42, § 2.

πίστιν διδόντες αὐτοῖς Jowett's ‘to whom they pledged their faith’ misses the point. Rather by this act of assassination they give a guarantee of their earnestness.

τοῖς πλέοσιν the Samian democracy.

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