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γὰρ epexegetic, like nam, enim, introducing the narrative.

Συρακοσίων καὶ Θουρίων Twenty Syracusan ships came in c. 26, § 1, and one in c. 35, § 1. Ten Thurian ships under Dorieus arrived in c. 35, § 1. Of these some were lost (c. 35, § 3). Five appear again in c. 61, § 2.

ὅσῳ μάλιστα καὶ ἐλεύθεροι answered by τοσούτῳ καὶ θρασύτατα. ὅσῳ καὶ ἐλευθερώτατοι is resolved into ὅσῳ καὶ μάλιστα ἐλεύθεροι, and, the emphasis being upon their ‘freedom,’ καὶ is put before that word rather than before μάλιστα.

τὸ πλῆθος in partitive apposition to οἱ ναῦται, as οἱ πλεῖστοι might have been in a similar sentence. Cf. i. 126, οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι ἀπῆλθον οἱ πολλοί. Plato, Phaedr. 275 B, has ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πλῆθος. The accus. of closer definition, as in πόσοι τὸ πλῆθος (Hdt. iv. 2, etc.), has no place here. τὸ πλῆθος=‘the majority,’ i. 20, 125.

τῷ γε Δωριεῖ κ.τ.λ. ‘and in the case of Dorieus, he even went so far as to raise his stick against him.’ The treatment of Dorieus is specially remarkable, hence γε. Concerning Dorieus see c. 35, § 1.

τὴν βακτηρίαν The carrying of a stick was a peculiarity of Lacedaemonian generals. Commentators quote Plut. Themist. 11 (of Eurybiades), ἐπαραμένου δὲ τὴν βακτηρίαν ὡς πατάξοντος Θεμιστοκλῆς ἔφη: πάταξον μέν, ἄκουσον δέ; Xen. Anab. ii. 3, 11, (of Clearchus), ἐν μὲν τῇ ἀριστερᾷ χειρὶ τὸ δόρυ ἔχων, ἐν δὲ τῇ δεξιᾷ βακτηρίαν. Add Xen. Hell. vi. 2, 19 (of Mnasippus), τὸν μέν τινα βακτηρίᾳ, τὸν δὲ τῷ στύρακι ἐπάταξεν.

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