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δ᾽ οὖν ‘however,’ the statement of what might have been and the comparison of methods have been a digression.

ὅμως sc. καίπερ ἐκπεπληγμένοι (c. 96, § 1).

μίαν μὲν . . . ̓̔ ἐγίγνοντο δὲ καὶ ἄλλαι . . .

τότε πρῶτον ‘then for the first time,’ i.e. this was the first recognition of the Pnyx as once more the true seat of assembly (cf. Δῆμος Πυκνίτης). The last assembly which had formally met had been held at Colonus (c. 67, § 2). One which had been appointed, but not held, was to have met in the theatre of Dionysus (c. 93, § 3). The oligarchs would naturally prefer that the old tradition should be broken through as far as possible.

οὗπερ εἰώθεσαν sc. ἐκκλησιάζειν, to be understood from ἐκκλησίαν ξυνέλεγον. P-S writes οἷπερ, understanding ξυλλέγειν and requiring exact balance to ἐς τὴν Πύκνα. In ii. 86, οὗπερ . . . προσεβεβοηθήκει, all MSS agree, and οὗπερ may be retained from the sense παρῆν βεβοηθηκώς.

εἶναι δὲ αὐτῶν ὁπόσοι καὶ ὅπλα παρέχονται In English we should reverse the position of καὶ: ‘all who supply a hoplite's outfit shall also be members of the 5000.’ The qualification for membership was to consist in supplying, at one's own expense, the outfit of a hoplite. Inasmuch as the number of such persons was not defined, we must suppose ‘the 5000’ to be used loosely as a convenient name for a body politic excluding the lowest classes. The assembly must, however, have calculated that those who could supply an outfit of heavy arms would come to some number not very remote from 5000. Arnold supposes that the acting 5000 would be drawn from such a body ‘by lot, by election, or by rotation.’ This does not appear very practicable, and it strains the words of Thucydides. Commentators seem to compare with the number 5000 the whole number of hoplites ἐκ καταλόγου, who were at one time 13,000, and they naturally find the discrepaney great. But if Thucydides had meant ‘every hoplite’ he would have said e g. εἶναι δὲ αὐτῶν πάντας τοὺς ὁπλίτας. It seems evident that only a portion of the ‘roll’ actually supplied themselves with the outfit.

μισθὸν φέρειν the true Attic, not φέρεσθαι (Cobet, Nov. Lect. p. 568). The reference is to μισθὸν βουλευτικόν, ἐκκλησιαστικόν, δικαστικόν. See c. 65, § 3. The design is still to secure respectability rather than economy.

μηδεμιᾷ ἀρχῇ Jowett's ‘for any office’ would correspond rather to the genitive μηδεμιᾶς ἀρχῆς, which P-S writes. The dative is modal or instrumental ‘by serving in any office.’ The comprehensiveness of the term ἀρχὴ is seen from Aristot. Pol. iii. 1, 4, τῶν ἀρχῶν αἱ μέν εἰσι διῃρημέναι κατὰ χρόνον . . . δ᾽ ἀόριστος, οἶον δικαστὴς καὶ ἐκκλησιαστής.

εἰ δὲ μὴ by this time a mere compound = ‘otherwise.’ Cf. i. 28, πόλεμον δὲ οὐκ εἴων ποεῖν: εἰ δὲ μὴ κ.τ.λ., ii. 5, etc.

ἐπάρατον ἐποήσαντο As the middle shows, ἐπάρατον is neuter: ‘made it an accursed thing.’ It is usually rendered as if masculine (which would require ἐπόησαν). Cf. i. 118, τότε δ᾽ οὐκέτι ἀνάσχετον ἐποιοῦντο; i. 102, δεινὸν ποησάμενοι.

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