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ἔργῳ—‘in deed’, opposed to παραινέσαι. It is not governed by ἐπεξελθεῖν, which does not take the dative in the sense of ‘carrying out’ or ‘prosecuting’ a plan, but either stands absolutely as here, or takes the accusative. See note on iv. 14, 3, τῇ παρούσῃ τύχῃ ὼς ἐπὶ πλεῖστον ἐπεξελθεῖν, which is similar in construction to the present passage.

μέν—note the force of the following imperfects, and of the coordinate construction with μέν and δέ. While Brasidas, having made his speech, is now getting ready to sally out, Cleon is told of a movement on the enemy's part.

Κλεαρίδα—Doric genitive: ch. 25, 2, ἐπὶ Πλειστόλα: so i. 103, 2, τοῦ Δὼς τοῦ Ἰθωμήτα. In ch. 6, 27 we have Κλεαρίδου. ἐπὶ τὰς Θρᾳκίας—the Thracian gates seem to have led out on the north-eastern side of the town near the shore of the lake. The accusative with ἐπί denotes the quarter or direction in which the troops under Clearidas were appointed to serve. We may compare such phrases as καθιστάναι ἐπὶ ἀρχήν, etc.

ἐπεξίοιεν—here ἐπί in composition probably denotes the attack to be made by a resetve force, though it may simply mean ‘sally out to attack’.

τῷ δὲ Κλέωνι—cf. iv. 93, 2, τῷ δὲ Ιπποκράτει ὡς αὐτῷ η:γγέλθη. φανεροῦ γενομένου—with this are connected καταβάντος and the two following present participles. For the construction cf. Hdt. v. 26, ἀπικόμενοι φανεροί εἰσιν: so Ar. Vesp. 735, δῆλός ἐστιν εὖ ποιῶν: the adjective with εἰμί being constructed like the corresponding verb.

Ἀθηνᾶς—from contracted nom. Ἀθηνᾶ=Ἀθηναία: see Lid. and Scott. θυομένου—the middle is used of the general who took the auspices by causing victims to be slain; so ch. 54, 7. This use of the word is common in Herodotus and Xenophon. ταῦτατὰ περὶ τὴν ἔξοδον (Poppo): but according to Krüger and others referring to θυομένου and denoting the ceremonial accompaniments of the sacrifice.

τότε—referring, as does τὴν θέαν, to what has been already said in ch. 7, 21. ἅπασα is emphatic, for Cleon thought the city was feebly guarded; see the latter part of ch. 7.

ὑπὸ τὰς...ὑποφαίνονται—the meaning is not perfectly clear, for ὑπό may mean either ‘under’ or ‘close up to’, and similarly ὑποφαίνομαι may mean either ‘apparere sub’ or ‘subapparere’. To translate ‘The feet of horses and men are to be seen under the gate’ gives a good sense; for the Athenians, as shown in Arnold's note, might have got up close to the walls, and the roadway being worn hollow there would be a space at the bottom of the gates. For the accusative cf. ii. 17, 1, τὸ Πελασγικὸν τὸ ὑπὸ τὴν ἁκρόπολιν. On the other hand the rendering ‘there are signs of’, etc. gives a more feeble conclusion of the sentence, especially after α:´πασα...φανερά in the preceding clause, and is therefore, I think, less desirable, though quite consistent with the Greek. With this latter view it has been rather oddly suggested that πόδες may mean the sound of horses' hoofs.

ἐπῆλθεν—‘came up’. πρὶν...ἥκειν—‘πρίν with the infinitive after a negative is rare in the Attic poets, but more frequent in Attic prose’ (Goodwin § 106, 2): so i. 68, 2, οὐ πρἱν πάσχειν, ἀλλ̓ έπειδὴ ἐν τῷ ἔργῳ ἐσμέν: i. 39, 2, etc. Note the dative οἱ with ἥκειν, a construction not uncommon with ἐλθεῖν.

σημαίνειν...ἀναχώρησιν—editors give no exact parallel to this cognate construction. The nearest is from Xen. Anab. iv. 3, 29, έπειδὰν σαλπιγκτὴς σημήνῃ τὸ πολεμικόν.

παρήγγειλε τοῖς ἀπιοῦσι—‘passed the word to the retiring force’. Classen reads παρήγγελλε, with some manuscript authority. παραγγέλλω, like σημαίνω, is a technical word for giving military orders; so παραγγέλσεις, ch. 66, 15. We might rather expect ἀπιοῦσι without τοῖς: see however note on ch. 5, 9. οἱ ἁπιόντες are the troops who had begun to carry out the order of ἀναχώρησις.

ἐπὶ τὸ εὐώνυμον—with ὑπάγειν. The following note of Arnold's shows how things stood. ‘The army was drawn up in line fronting Amphipolis, and as the left was nearest Eion, the movement of retreat would naturally begin with that part of the army. Meantime the right should have maintained their position, and continued to face the enemy, in order to check pursuit till the other part of the army was fairly on its march to Eion’.

ὑπάγειν—of an orderly and deliberate retreat: so iv. 126, 6, κόσμῳ καὶ τάξει ὑπαγαγόντες. Eion was on the left bank of the river, like Amphipolis.

σχολὴ γίγνξσθαι—if the nominative σχολή is right, we must compare such phrases (mostly negative) as ούκ αὐτῷ σχολή (ἐστι). σχολὴ γίγνεταί τινι thus means ‘a man finds he has (lit. gets) time’, γίγνεται instead of ἐστί implying a change in the look of circumstances: so iv. 68, 5, ἀσφάλεια δὲ αὐτοῖς μᾶλλον ἐγίγνετο τῆς ἀνοίξεως. The meaning then is that Cleon no longer thought it necessary for the right wing to stand fast in order to cover the retreat, but supposed that the whole army might be safely withdrawn.

σχολῇ—‘at leisure’, i.e. in a slow and dilatory manner, has some manuscript authority, and is read by Krüger and Classen. It would mean that Cleon became uneasy and impatient at the time taken to carry out his orders, and so made a premature movement which proved disastrous. The subject of γίγνεσθαι is then to be supplied from the context; as in ch. 64, 20. For the adverbial use of σχολῇ cf. iii. 46, 2, εἰ τὸ αὐτὸ δύναται σχολῇ καὶ τάχυ ξυμβῆναι.

ἐπιστρέψας τὸ δεξιόν—the Athenians were fronting the town in line, looking west; they now faced to the left, and the line became a column heading southwards towards Eion. The right flank, which was not covered by the shield, was thus exposed to attack. For the military usage of ἐπιστρέφω and ἐπιστροφή see ii. 90, 3, ἐπιστρέψαντες τὰς ναῦς: cf. Soph. Oed. Col. 1045, δαΐων ἀνδρῶν ἐπιστροφαί. We have τὰ γυμνά in ch 71, 6, also γύμνωσις ib. line 12: cf. iii. 23, 4, ἐσηκόντιζον ἐς τὰ γυμνά.

ὅτι—introducing the actual words; so i. 137, 4, ἐδήλου δ̓ γραφὴ ὅτι, Θεμιστοκλῆς ἥκω παρὰ σέ: so iv. 38, 2. For μένουσι Krüger reads μενοῦσι, but the present seems more forcible and appropriate. Kr[udot ]ger also reads δῆλοι δή and objects to τοὑς ἐπιόντας as otiose, and probably a gloss. In similar sentences however δέ often introduces an explanation or reason for a preceding statement. And ἐπιόντας has considerable force, viz. that ‘a sudden onset’ would be likely to rout unsteady troops like the Athenians. ἀνοιγέτωἀνοίγω is the usual Thucydidean form; iv. 68, 3; iv. 74, 1, etc. The imperative use of τις commonly implies ‘any one (every one) concerned’, as in ch. 20, 6; but the usage here is slightly different. ἃς εἴρηται—sc. ἀνοίγειν.

τὰς ἐπὶ τὸ σταύρωμα πύλας—Thucydides does not tell us what this σταύρωμα was; but Grote's view is probably right, that it was an outwork constructed by Brasidas to secure the bridge over the Strymon. We learn from iv. 102, 2, that Amphipolis stood on a peninsula and was fortified by a wall from a point in the river's course above the city to a point below. In iv. 103, 4 we find that the bridge, which seems undoubtedly to have been below the city, was some distance from the fortress, and was not then connected with it by walls. Brasidas however had now held Amphipolis for eighteen months, and would no doubt have secured his hold on the bridge, the possession of which was of vital importance. He appears to have constructed a palisade, extending from a point in the city walls, and touching the river at some point below the bridge, which was thus brought within the line of defence. It is plain from the first part of chapter 8 that Brasidas had full command over crossing the river when he pleased. The ‘gate to the stockade’ then led first into the space enclosed between the original wall and the new outwork; while the ‘first gate in the long wall’ was above the starting point of the stockade, and led directly out. The words τότε ὅντος show that the works had been altered when Thucydides wrote.

τὴν ὁδὸν ταύτην εὐθεῖαν—for this accusative ‘of the space traversed’ cf. Eur. Med. 384, κράτιστα τὴν εὑθεῖαν (sc. ὀδὸν πορεύεσθαι). ταύτην denotes the road at the place spoken of, further explained by ᾖπερ κ.τ.λ. οὖτος thus used is often to be rendered ‘that’. εὐθεῖαν is predicate; lit. ‘taking it straight’. The meaning is that Brasidas led his men straight up towards the ridge on which Cleon was posted; see ch. 7, 18. τὸ καρτερώτατον seems to be the steepest part of the ascent to this ridge, which connected the hill on which Amphipolis stood with the higher eminence of Mount Pangaeus to the east of the city.

ἰόντι—so i. 24, 1, *:επίδαμνός ἐστι πόλις ἐν δεξιᾷ ἐσπλέοντι τὸν Ἰόνιον κόλπον.

ξυνέβη τε—‘and so it fell out’. This phrase, as Classen points out, is used of ‘various concurrent circumstances’, as in ch. 14, 1, etc. Here however it rather sums up and states the general result of ‘concurrent circumstances’, as phrases with τε are commonly used to conclude an account; e. g. iv. 26, 5, παντί τε τρόπῳ ἑκάτεροι ἐτεχνῶντο.

καὶ ἐξαπίνης—probably to be taken with τῷ, though the connexion of an adverb with an adjective is certainly awkward. Poppo therefore proposes, with some manuscript authority, to leave out καί and to take ἐξαπίνης with the following infinitive, comparing iv. 36, 2, where ἐξαπίνη<*> and τῷ ἀδοκήτῳ occur in the same clause.

ἐπιπαριών—with the dative this word imphes passing along to attack; πλησιἀζων ἐπετίθετο τῷ δεξιῷ (schol.). In iv. 94, 2, the same word is used with the accusative of passing along the lines of a friendly army: so vi. 67, 4. with ἕκαστα. In iv. 108, 3, and vii. 76, we find it without a case following. Similarly ἔπειμι and ἐπῆλθον with the dative commonly denote hostile approach, but not so with the accusative. In Xenophon ἐπιπάρειμι is used of light troops advancing parallel to a marching army.

πεσόντα αὐτόν—Classen notes that this and viii. 102, 1, are the only passages where the aorist participle is used with αἰσθάνομαι to denote what has just happened. In 24 passages the present or perfect participle is found. See also ch. 30, 3.

ἔμενε μᾶλλον—several MSS. have ἔμενέ τε, which is defended by Arnold as being answered by καὶ ἠμύνοντο, and giving the sense ‘the right wing not only kept its ground, but, though Cleon himself fled, and was killed, the soldiers formed in a ring and repulsed Clearidas in two or three attacks’. In favour of this view may be alleged the well known rule that in sentences coordinately constructed with μέν and δέ the clause with μέν ( μὲν Κλέων) is often subordinate in sense. See note on iv. 80, 3, προκρίναντες ἐς δισχιλίους, οἱ μέν...οἱ δέ κ.τ.λ.

οἱ δὲ αὐτοῦ ξυστραφέντες—the subject of this clause is οἱ αὐτοῦ ὀπλῖται, and the words ξυστραφέντες ἐπὶ τὸν λόφον, ‘rallying, or closing together on the hill’, are in apposition. ξυστραφέντες is put out of its grammatical place for the sake of the rhythm of the sentence, as noted on iv. 24, 2, ὁρῶντες τὰς μὲν παρούσας ὀλίγας ναῦς, where ὀλίγας is the predicate. Compare the order in ch. 41, 1, οἱ πρέσβεις ἀφικό μενοι αὐτῶν. From the position of αὐτοῦ we should naturally assume it to be the adverb of place rather than the personal pronoun, which would regularly take the order οἱ ὁπλῖται αὐτοῦ, as in line 40. Poppo however takes it to be the pronoun, and compares iii. 22, 4, ἐκ τῆς αὑτῶν φυλακῆς: iii. 91, 1, ἐς τὸ αὑτῶν ξυμμαχικόν: viii. 48, 4, ἐν τῇ αὐτοῦ ἀρχῇ. But in all these passages the reading αὑτῶν or αὑτοῦ can be supported, and is probably right; see note on ch. 71, 3. Here at any rate the adverbial meaning ‘on the spot’ gives an excellent sense, contrasting the right wing, which stood its ground, with the left, which had retreated.

καὶ δὶς τρίς—so i. 82, 3, διελθόντων ἐτῶν καὶ δύο καὶ τριῶν. With this emphatic use of καί may be compared καὶ ἅπαντες, etc. Similar to it is the Tacitean use of quoque for even, lit. ‘not only...but also’.

οὕτω δέ—Classen reads Krüger's suggestion οὕτω δή, the usual phrase for tum demum, e.g.i. 131, 1, οὕτω δὴ οὑκέτι ἐπέσχον. τὸ στράτευμα, the subject of the sentence, is resolved by partial apposition into ὅσοι μή...οἱ λοιποί: cf. iv. 68, 2, οἱ φρουροὶ... ἠμύνοντο ὀλίγοι...οἱ δὲ πλείους.

χαλεπῶς—this adverb is used emphatically of a disastrous or hard-pressed retreat; iii. 23, 4, χαλεπῶς καὶ βιαίως: iv. 25, 6, χαλεπῶς ἀπεχώρησαν. For ἐν χερσί see ch. 3, 14.

οἱ δὲ τὸν Βρασίδαν ..ἐτελεύτησεν—there is a singular beauty in the simple form of this sentence, especially in the closing cadence. The sound of ἐτελεύτησεν recalls α:πηλλάγησαν in the funeral speech of Pericles (ii. 42 fin.), and may be added to the reasons for there taking α:πηλλάγησαν absolutely, ‘they passed away’.

νικῶσι—‘are victorious’; for this use of the present cf. ἀδικῶ, φεύγω, etc.; see Goodwin's Moods and Tenses, § 10, n. 5.

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    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.103
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.131
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.137
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.24
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.39
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.68
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    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.17
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.42
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.90
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.22
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    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.91
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.102
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.103
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.108
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.126
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.14
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.24
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.25
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.26
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.3
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.36
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.38
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.68
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.74
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    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.93
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.94
    • Thucydides, Histories, 5.26
    • Thucydides, Histories, 6.67
    • Thucydides, Histories, 7.76
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    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.48
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