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τάδε—‘as follows’; cf. 76, 20: iv. 117 fin. γίγνεται ἐκεχειρία...ἥδε. The provisions of the treaty now concluded should be compared with the year's truce made the year before as recorded in iv. 118. ‘The fifty years’ peace is based not, like the treaty which preceded it, upon the principle of uti possidetis, but on that of compensation. As in the preliminary treaty, the right of access to the Delphic oracle is maintained for all Hellenes; and a clause is inserted guaranteeing the Delphians their independence. Great concessions are made by Sparta to Athens, chiefly in return for the Spartan captives' (Jowett). The language of the treaty is sometimes awkward in expression, but the meaning is clear throughout. The main clauses have the usual infinitive construction alternating with the imperative.

καὶ οἱ ξύμμαχοι—the allies of Sparta alone are mentioned, as in lines 55 and 61. The Athenians seem to have acted independently. On the other hand we have in iv. 119, 1, ξυνέθεντο Λακεδαιμόνιοι καὶ οἱ ξύμμαχοι Ἀθηναίοις καὶ τοῖς ξυμμάχοις: cf. ch. 47, 3.

κοινῶν—the κοινὰ ἱερά are spoken of iii. 57, 1. They were ‘those of Delphi, Olympia, Nemea, and the Isthmian Neptune, at which the four great national festivals of games were celebrated; that of Jupiter at Dodona, possibly of Abae in Phocis, and any others at which oracles were delivered’ (Arnold).

καὶ ἰέναι—apparently, as Arnold points out, a provision for the safe conduct of worshippers on their way to the temples, as well as in performing their religious offices when there. The position of the words after θύειν is awkward, and they are bracketed as doubtful by Krüger and Classen. Arnold however justly observes that in all formal instruments many words are inserted to prevent the possibility of evasion, which in ordinary language would be deemed superfluous.

θεωρεῖν—to go, or send envoys to the games: viii. 10, 1, τὰ Ἴσθμια ἐγίγνετο καὶ οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι ἐθεωρουν ἐς αυτἀ. ‘The exclusion from the games was considered an especial grievance, as it implied an unworthiness in the persons excluded to appear before the god in whose honour the festival was celebrated: see ch. 50, 7; and Livy ii. 37, 38’ (Arnold).

τὸ ἱερόν—the whole of the sacred precincts; see note on iv. 90, 2. αὐτονόμους κ.τ.λ.—‘independent as regards laws and imposts and jurisdiction’. In 449 the Athenians had placed the temple in the hauds of the Phocians (i. 112, 5). The genitive αὑτῶν depeuds on the idea of ‘control over’, which is implied in the preceding adjectives, especially αὐτονόμους.

ἐπὶ πημονῇ—so ch. 47, 6; an old and poetic word, used in the language of treaties by Thucydides. In line 28 we have ἐπὶ κακῷ. μήτε τέχνῃ κ.τ.λ.—ch. 47, 10 and 57: Dem. Timocr. 747 (150), οὐδὲ δῶρα δέξομαι οὔτε τέχνῃ οὔτε μηχανῇ οὐδεμίᾳ, from the oath taken by the ἡλιασταί.

τι διάφορον—‘any difference or disputed point’, as in the passages cited in the next note, and others quoted by Krüger on i. 56, 1, γενέσθαι διάφορα. We have the singular in vii. 55, 2, ἐπενεγκεῖν τι τὸ διάφορον, where the word probably means a ‘cause of dissension’. In vii 75, 7, it means a reverse.

δικαίῳ—some few MSS. have δίκαις, which we should rather expect, compaiing i. 78, 3, τὰ δὲ διάφορα δίκῃ λύεσθαι: i. 140, 5, δίκας τῶν διαφόρων ἀλλήλοις διδόναι καὶ δέχεσθαι. δίκαιον means what is in accordance with justice, a just principle, point, or consideration, or as we say ‘a right’; so iii. 54. 1, παρεχόμενοι ἔχομεν δίκαια. The sense here required is ‘just or legal course of procedure’, and it is so taken by Krüger and Classen. I am not without doubt whether the word will bear this meaning, but I have not taken on myself to alter the text.

παρέδοσαν—the aorist seems to take the restoration as virtually carried into effect. We might expect ὅσας ἂν παραδῶσι: cf. ἐγένοντο, line 29. It is not clear whether the provisions of this clause extend to Amphipolis as well. παραδιδόναι ‘to hand over’ is a more general word than ἀποδιδόναι. The latter seems to be used of the places the actual possession of which was of primary importance.

φερούσας—‘on condition of paying’. τὸν ἐπ᾽ Ἀριστείδου φόρον—the φόρος was the money payment furnished by the allies instead of ships for carrying on the war against the Persian power; see 1. 96—99. Its original amount was 460 talents (i. 96, 3). By 431 it averaged 600 talents (ii. 13, 3), ‘not probably by an increase of the rate imposed upon the allies, but from the extension of the tribute to new cities and by the commutation of ships for money’. See Jowett's note, for inscriptions etc. relating to the tribute. There seems reason to believe that the assessment had been doubled in 425, though according to the orators this was done by Alcibiades.

ἀποδιδόντων—‘provided they pay’. For the force of the compound cf. ch. 53, 4. ἐπειδή—‘after the conclusion of treaty’; 1. 6, 3, οὐ πολὺς χρόνος ἐπειδὴ ἐπαύσαντο.

εἱσὶ δὲ Ἄργιλος κ.τ.λ.—these are cities fliendly to Sparta, and entitled to her protection. The defection of Argilus, Acanthus and Stageirus to Brasidas is related in iv. 88 and 103, 3. Scolus is not mentioned elsewhere by Thucydides. It appears to have been one τῶν περὶ Ὄλυνθον πόλεων, and probably, like Olynthus and Spartolus, revolted from Athens at the beginning of the war; see i. 58, 1.

αὑτούς—singularly awkward. It is commonly taken as the subject of ποιεῖσθαι, referring to the Athenians, while Ἁθηναίοις=ἑαυτοῖς. Krüger proposes to alter αὐτούς into αὐτονόμους, or omit it; in this case Ἀθηναίοις would depend on ἐξέστω, which certainly seems the most natural construction. The best way seems to take βουλομένας ταύτας as a sort of pendent construction and αὐτούς as the object of ποιεῖσθαι, denoting the inhabitants of the cities. The combination in line 51 is somewhat similar. See too iii. 79, 3, ἐπὶ τὴν πόλιν οὐδὲν μᾶλλον ἐπέπλεον, καίπερ ἐν πολλῇ ταραχῇ καὶ φόβῳ ὄντας, It has also been proposed to put the comma before ἐξέστω, thus connecting βουλομένας ταύτας with the words which precede. Another suggestion is to read αὐτοὺς Ἀθηναίους, ‘the Athenians independently may make them their allies’: the accusative as in line 27.

Μηκυβερναίους κ.τ.λ.—these appear to be cities which had reniained faithful to Athens. Sane had held out against Brasidas (iv. 109, 3); Mecybern a was afterwards taken by the Olynthians (ch. 39, 1). Singi is not elsewhere mentioned by Thucydides. It appears from Hdt. (vii. 122) to have been in Sithonia. These places may have shown signs of disaffection to Athens; or this may be a stipulation on the Athenian side to secure them against hostile neighbours (Jowett).

Πάνακτον—ch. 3, 27. Κορυφάσιον—the Spartan name for Pylos (iv. 3, 2). Κύθηραiv. 53 sq. Μεθώνηνiv. 45, 2, note (where the orthography of the word is discussed). Πτελεόν has not been mentioned before. There were four or five places so named. Phny speaks of one in Boeotia, while Strabo places another on the confines of Messenia and Elis. Ἀταλάντη was a small island off the coast of Locri occupied by the Athenians in 431 (ii. 32).

ἐν τῷ δημοσίῳ—i.e. in prison, said to be a Laconian expression, Xen. Hel. vii. 4, 36. The captives from the island are especially meant. ὄσης—sc. γῆς or χώρας, as in line 47.

Βρασίδας ἐσέπεμψεν—see iv. 123, 4.

Σκιωναίων δὲ κ τ.λ.—these were revolted cities now in the power of Athens. Scione was closely blockaded (iv, 133, 4), while Torone had been retaken by Cleon (ch. 3). Σερμυλίων—mentioned in i. 65, 2 as fliendly to Athens; no revolt is recorded. Classen reads Σερμυλιῶν, on the ground that the town was called Ζερμυλία and the people Σερμυλιῆς.

εἴ τινα ἄλλην—e.g. Mende, which had been recovered in 423 (iv. 129 sq.). The construction is interrupted by the clause with τινα, and περὶ αὐτῶν, etc. added by a slight anacoluthon.

τὸν μέγιστον—so ch. 47, 54: iv. 85, 6, ὅρκοις καταλαβὼν τοῖς μεγίστοις. ἐξ ἑκάστης πόλεως—for ἐξ Classen adopts the emendation ἑπτακαίδεκα, which would be denoted by ιζ̓, this being the number of signatories to the treaty on each side.

τὸν δὲ ὅρκον ἀνανεοῦσθαι—‘this arose partly from the feeling that all laws and public acts required to be solemnly confirmed from time to time, to prevent them from becoming obsolete, and partly lest the succeeding magistrates might think themselves not bound by the acts of their predecessors, unless they themselves incurred the obligation. So the Veientines are said to have attacked Servius Tullius, on the ground that their treaty with his predecessor Tarquinius Priscus did not extend to him’ (Arnold).

ἐν πόλει—ch. 23, 27: ch. 47, 74. The acropolis is meant, cf. ii. 15 fin. καλεῖται δὲ ἀκρόπολις μέχρι τοῦδε ἔτι ὑπ᾽ Ἀθηναίων πόλις. There is no article, as the word acquires the force of a proper name; cf. ch. 10, 63.

ἐν Ἀμυκλαίῳ—the temple of Apollo at Amyclae, stated by Polybius to be twenty stadia from Sparta. So in iv. 133, 2, the temple of Hera is said to be ἐν Ἄργει, though it was forty stadia from the city.

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    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.112
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.140
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.56
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.58
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.65
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.78
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    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.13
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.15
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.32
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.37
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.54
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    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.79
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.109
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.117
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.118
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.119
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.123
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.129
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.133
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.3
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.45
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.53
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.85
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.88
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.90
    • Thucydides, Histories, 7.4
    • Thucydides, Histories, 7.55
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.10
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